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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 934183, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/934183
Research Article

Eleutheroside E, An Active Component of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice

1Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, 516 Baekhyun, Bundang, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 463-746, Republic of Korea
2Research Division, Korea Health Supplement Institute, Seongnam 463-400, Republic of Korea

Received 16 January 2013; Accepted 15 March 2013

Academic Editor: Evan Paul Cherniack

Copyright © 2013 Jiyun Ahn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Eleutheroside E (EE), a principal component of Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), has anti-inflammatory and protective effects in ischemia heart. However, it is unknown whether it ameliorates insulin resistance and reduces hyperglycemia in diabetes. This study investigated the effect of EE-containing ES extracts, as well as EE, on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice. EE increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, EE improved TNF-α-induced suppression of glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Five-week-old db/db mice were fed a diet consisting of ES extract or EE for 5 weeks. Both were effective in improving serum lipid profiles and significantly decreased blood glucose and serum insulin levels. ES and EE supplementation effectively attenuated HOMA-IR. Glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests showed that EE increased insulin sensitivity. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that ES and EE protected pancreatic alpha and beta cells from diabetic damage. In addition, ES and EE improved hepatic glucose metabolism by upregulating glycolysis and downregulating gluconeogenesis in obese type 2 diabetic mice. These data suggest that EE mediates the hyperglycemic effects of ES by regulating insulin signaling and glucose utilization. The beneficial effects of EE may provide an effective and powerful strategy to alleviate diabetes.