Table 1: Characteristics of included systematic reviews.

ReviewPopulation Type of yoga interventions Type of comparisons Outcomes
Health condition
(ICPC-2 class)
No. of primary studies incl. in SRNo. of participants

Aljasir et al., 2010 [8]Type 2 diabetes
5362Mixed yoga and yoga with dietary and herbal intakeNo data Blood glucose levels, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes-related complication

Anderson and Taylor, 2011 [9]Metabolic syndromes
2125Restorative yogaWaitlist, usual careBody mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, blood glucose, blood lipids (HDL, LDL), perceived stress (SF-36), and food frequency

Büssing et al., 2012 [10]Pain symptoms
(A1; N1; L)
16937Mixed yoga (LAYT, Viniyoga, Raj, and unspecified others)Waitlist, usual care, exercise, medication, and lectureEffect size of pain using standardized measurements (i.e., VAS, MPQ, and CMDQ)

Cabral et al., 2011 [11]Psychiatric disorders
10343Hatha, Iyengar, Kriya, Sahaja, Integrated, Meditation, and Siddha SamadhiNo dataMajor psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and PTSD)

Dickinson et al., 2008 [12]Hypertensive
263Yoga and meditationNo comparison groupSystolic and diastolic blood pressure

Gerritsen et al., 2002 [13]Carpal tunnel syndrome
14211 yoga posturesUsual carePain and sleep disturbance scores

Haaz and Bartlett, 2011 [14]Arthritis
10243Iyngar and Kundalini yogaWaitlist, usual care, and no comparison groupDisease activity score (DAS), joint inflammation, functional ability (strength, balance, flexibility, and mobility), psychosocial (arthritis impact measurement scale 2 (AIMS2), HRQL (SF-36), Beck Depression Index (BDI)), and medication usage

Heiwe and Jacobson, 2011 [15]Chronic kidney disease
140Modified yoga including balancing, strengthening, and breathing techniques ExerciseMuscular strength, grip strength, and blood lipids (triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol)

Innes and Vincent, 2007 [16]Women with menopause
7408Hatha, Iyengar, Sahaja, Hot, Yoga Awareness Program (Kripalu), and Integrated Approach to Yoga TherapyWaitlist, exercise, and no comparison groupOverall menopausal symptoms, vasomotor menopausal symptoms, and sleep disturbance

Innes et al., 2010 [17]Type 2 diabetes
251828Various components including asana, Kriya, or cleansing exercises, meditation, pranayama, and meditationWaitlist, usual care, exercise, and book/pamphletInsulin resistance (fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, fructosamine, fasting insulin, and fasting glycated hemoglobin), blood lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, low/high-density lipoprotein, very LDL, cholesterol/HDL ratio, and LDL/HDL ratio), anthropometric measures (BMI, body weight, and body composition), blood pressure (systolic/diastolic), and medical usage

Kirkwood et al., 2005 [18]Anxiety disorders
8370KundaliniSham yoga, medication, book/pamphlet, and tablet placeboAnxiety scales and checklists (YBOCS, HAS, ACL, Inst. for personality and ability testing)

Krisanaprakornkit et al., 2006 [19]Anxiety disorders
276KundaliniRelaxation response/mindful meditationAnxiety rating scale

Langhorst et al., 2012 [20]Women with fibromyalgia syndrome
293Yoga of Awareness ProgramWaitlist, usual carePain, sleep, fatigue, depression (VAS), and health-related quality of life (FIQ—fibromyalgia impact questionnaire)

Lee et al., 2009 [21]Menopausal women
7470Iyengar, restorative, and integrated yoga (!AYT)Waitlist, exercisePsychological, somatic, vasomotor, and total symptoms of menopause

Lin et al., 2011 [22]Psychological Health
(P1; P3; P29)
10788Hatha, restorative, integrated, mind-body stress reduction, and Tibetan yogaNo dataPsychological health rating (anxiety, depression, distress, and stress), and quality of life and physical measures (self-reported health, fatigue)

Mahendira and Towheed, 2009 [23]Osteoarthritis (L91)1No dataUnspecified yogaWaitlist with wrist splintEfficacy of treatment

Marc et al., 2011 [24]Anxiety in pregnant women
(P73; W78)
134Mindfulness interventionsWaitlistPerceived stress (perceived stress scale), depression, anxiety, positive/negative affect, and affect regulation

Morone and Greco, 2007 [25]Pain symptoms
4188Yoga, relaxation, and educationWaitlist, book/pamphletPain (WOMAC, RDS, joint tenderness, and visual analogue scale), physical function

Muller et al., 2004 [26]Carpal tunnel syndrome
146Unspecified yogaUsual care (splint)Pain and grip strength

Pilkington et al., 2005 [27]Depression
5183Iyengar, Kriya, and Broota's relaxation technique (BRT)Waitlist, sham yoga, exercise, medication, and electroconvulsive therapyDepression rating scale

Posadzki et al.,  
2011  [28]
Pain symptoms
7403Hatha, Iyengar, Viniyoga, and 2 others unspecifiedWaitlist, usual care, exercise, book/pamphletPain, disability, depression rating scales, and medication usage

Ram et al., 2003 [29]Asthmatic
3147Breathing exercise, meditation, postures, deep muscle relaxation, and chantingWaitlist, exercise, and no data for some groupsAsthma symptoms (peak expiratory flow rates, exacerbations per week, and asthma symptom scores)

Ramaratnam and Sridharan, 2000  [30]Epileptic
250Sahaja, Pranayama, Dhyana, Yama, and NiyamaSham yoga, talk therapySeizure frequency and duration

Slade and Keating, 2007 [31]Low back pain
2145Iyengar, ViniyogaExercise, lecture, and book/pamphletPain and function rating scores

Smith and Pukall, 2009 [32]Pain/relaxation in labour
(P01; W78)
2281Yoga program with educational activitiesUsual care, exercise, music, and other yoga groupsPain intensity, satisfaction with pain relief, satisfaction with childbirth, Apgar score, use of pharmacological pain relief, length of active labour, and augmentation in labour

Smith et al., 2011 [33]Anxiety in cancer patients
(P29; A79)
10892Hatha, Iyengar, Restorative, Yoga of Awareness, Tibetan, and 4 others unspecifiedWaitlist, exercise, and talk therapyAnxiety, stress, depression, fatigue, sleep quality, spiritual wellbeing, and quality of life scales

Italics: systematic reviews including only yoga interventions.
Normal: systematic reviews including yoga interventions plus other interventions.