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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 976967, 10 pages
Research Article

Palm Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Improves Vascular Proatherosclerotic Changes in Hyperhomocysteinemic Rats

1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University of Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
2Faculty of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
3Quéstra Clinical Research Sdn Bhd, 10350 Penang, Malaysia
4Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, UKMMC, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, UKMMC, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 16 September 2012; Revised 23 January 2013; Accepted 18 February 2013

Academic Editor: Peng Nam Yeoh

Copyright © 2013 Ku-Zaifah Norsidah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on aortic proatherosclerotic changes in rats fed with a high methionine diet. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. The first group was the control (fed with a basal diet). Another five groups were fed with 1% methionine diet for 10 weeks. From week 6 onward, folate (8 mg/kg diet) or palm TRF (30, 60, and 150 mg/kg diets) was added into the diet of the last four rat groups, respectively. The high methionine diet raised the plasma total homocysteine and aortic lipid peroxidation, which were reduced by the palm TRF and folate supplementations. Plasma nitric oxide was reduced in the high methionine group compared to the control ( versus μmol/L, ), which reduction was reversed by the palm TRF (60 and 150 mg/kg) and folate supplementations. The increased aortic vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in the methionine group ( ) was significantly reduced by the folate ( ) and palm TRF at 150 mg/kg ( ). Palm TRF was comparable to folate in reducing high methionine diet-induced plasma hyperhomocysteinemia, aortic oxidative stress, and inflammatory changes in rats.