Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

Table 1

Effect of Tai Chi in patients with heart failure.


Yeh et al. (2004) [54]RCT
(randomized controlled trial)
30 patients with HF
64 ± 13 y/o
Tai Chi group ( ): 12-week Tai Chi exercise, twice a week for 16 weeks
Usual care group ( ): pharmacologic therapy, diet, and exercise counseling
Tai Chi group showed improved quality of life scores, increased 6-min walking distance, and decreased serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels compared with patients in the control group

Barrow et al. (2007) [53]RCT52 patients with HF
68.9 y/o
(NYHA classes II-III)
Tai Chi group ( ): 16-week Tai Chi exercise, 1-hour twice weekly
Medical care group ( ): no exercise
Tai Chi group had an improvement in symptom scores of heart failure and depression scores compared with those patients in the control group

Yeh et al. (2008) [55]RCT18 patients with HF
59 ± 14 y/o
(NYHA classes I–III, mean EF: 24 ± 8%)
Tai Chi group ( ): 12-week Tai Chi exercise, 1-hour twice weekly
Usual care group ( ): pharmacologic therapy and dietary and exercise counseling
ECG-based sleep spectrogram showed that Tai Chi group had a significant increase in high-frequency coupling and significant reduction in low-frequency coupling, which indicated improved sleep stability and better disease-specific quality of life

Yeh et al. (2011) [49]RCT100 patients with systolic HF
67 ± 11 y/o
(NYHA classes I–III, mean EF: 29 ± 8%)
Tai Chi group ( ): 12-week Tai Chi exercise program
Control group ( ): time-matched education
No significant changes in 6-minute walking distance and peak oxygen uptake
Tai chi group had greater improvements in quality of life, exercise self efficacy, mood, and total mood disturbance

Caminiti et al. (2011) [56]RCT60 HF patients
73.8 ± 6 y/o,
M/F 51/9,
Combined training group (CT, ): Tai Chi + endurance training
Endurance training group (ET, ): endurance training only
All patients performed 4 sessions of exercise per week for 12 weeks
6-minute walking increased in both groups
Systolic BP and BNP decreased in the CT group compared to ET
CT group had a greater improvement in physical perception and peak torque of knee extensor compared to ET group

Yeh et al. (2013) [57]RCT16 HF patients with preserved ejection fraction
66 ± 12 y/o,
Tai Chi group ( ): 12-week Tai Chi exercise program
Aerobic exercise group ( )
Change in peak oxygen uptake was similar between groups
6-minute walk distance increased more with Tai Chi
Depression scores improved more with Tai Chi
Both groups had improved Minnesota Living With Heart Failure scores and self-efficacy

Redwine et al. (2012) [60]Non-RCT28 HF patients
(NYHA class II)
67.0 ± 11.9 y/o
Tai Chi group ( ): 12-week
Yang Tai Chi short form
60 minutes twice per week
Usual care control group ( )
Tai Chi group reduced total depression scores and somatic/affective symptoms of depression compared to usual care patients

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