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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 192452, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/192452
Research Article

In Silico Identification of Potent PPAR- Agonists from Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Bioactivity Prediction, Virtual Screening, and Molecular Dynamics Study

1School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan

Received 17 December 2013; Accepted 25 January 2014; Published 26 May 2014

Academic Editor: Fuu-Jen Tsai

Copyright © 2014 Kuan-Chung Chen and Calvin Yu-Chian Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) related to regulation of lipid metabolism, inflammation, cell proliferation, differentiation, and glucose homeostasis by controlling the related ligand-dependent transcription of networks of genes. They are used to be served as therapeutic targets against metabolic disorder, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes; especially, PPAR- is the most extensively investigated isoform for the treatment of dyslipidemic type 2 diabetes. In this study, we filter compounds of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using bioactivities predicted by three distinct prediction models before the virtual screening. For the top candidates, the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were also utilized to investigate the stability of interactions between ligand and PPAR- protein. The top two TCM candidates, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan and abrine, have an indole ring and carboxyl group to form the H-bonds with the key residues of PPAR- protein, such as residues Ser289 and Lys367. The secondary amine group of abrine also stabilized an H-bond with residue Ser289. From the figures of root mean square fluctuations (RMSFs), the key residues were stabilized in protein complexes with 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan and abrine as control. Hence, we propose 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan and abrine as potential lead compounds for further study in drug development process with the PPAR- protein.