Table 2: Cardiovascular effects of PNS (Rb1, Rg1, and R1) in vivo research.

CompoundsOrgan/animalsEffects   Study

Raw and steamed extractsRats bloodAntiplatelet, anticoagulant, and antithrombotic effect
protecting myocardium cells from apoptosis
(i) Prolong rat bleeding timeLau et al., 2009 [11]
PNSRats heart(ii) Activate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and improve the left ventricular EF, left ventricular FS, LVDd, and LVDs at end systole Chen et al., 2011 [13]
PNS (Rb1, Rg1)Guinea pig heart(iii) Inhibit the total myocardial ATPaseChen et al., 1994 [25]

PNSSD ratsAntimyocardial ischemia and hypoxia effectDecrease MDA and elevated SOD activity and decrease cytokines such as TNF- , CRP, and IL-1 Han et al., 2013 [37]

Radix NotoginsengSprague-Dawley ratsLipid-lowering effectDecline in serum levels of TC, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, with an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels; reduced levels of hepatic HMG-CoA reductaseXia et al., 2011 [45]

Panax notoginseng rootSprague-Dawley ratsInhibition of Intimal Hyperplasia and smooth muscle cell proliferation(i) Inhibit the vascular intimal hyperplasia and lower the expression of PCNA, cyclin E, cyclinD1, FN, and MMP-9Wu et al., 2010 [47]
PNSRats heart (ii) Lower the IA, IT, HRIA, the ratio of intimal/mesolamella area and thickness, and the expression of PCNA Wang et al., 2009 [48]

PNSRabbits Antiatherosclerosis effect(i) Decrease the mRNA expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 in the aorta wall after 8 weeks of treatment in rabbits and regulate the blood lipid profileLiu et al., 2010 [55]
PNSRats heart (ii) Enhance transcriptional activation of the LXRalpha gene promoter, subsequently upregulated of ABCA1 and ABCG1, and inhibit NF-kappaB DNA binding activityFan et al., 2012 [56]
PNSRats(iii) Reduce the gene expression of some inflammatory factors, such as integrins, IL-18, IL-1beta, and matrix MMP-2 and MMP-9, increase the expression of IkappaBalpha, and attenuate the expression of NF-kappaB/p65Zhang et al., 2008 [57]
PNSRats(iv) Suppress phosphorylation of FAK on threonine 397, integrins expression, and NF-kappaB translocationYuan et al., 2011 [58]
PNSZebrafish (v) Promote changes in the subintestinal vesselsHong et al., 2009 [60]

Rg1Open-chest dogsAntiarrhythmia effectProlong SNRT, AVWCL, and VERP and increase VFTWu et al., 1995 [63]

PNSRats Inhibition of left ventricular remodeling(i) Inhibit the markers of cardiac hypertrophy including HW/BW, LVW/BW, and the MDZhou et al., 2005 [71]
PNSSHR(ii) Increase the effect of calcium pump on the membrane of sarcoplasmic reticulum, decrease the myocardial intracellular Ca2+, and reduce the mass of the left ventricular muscleFeng and Jiang, 1998 [72]
PNSRats(iii) Stimulate ACE2 to inhibit the expression of TNF-alpha and enhance the antioxidanceGuo et al., 2010 [73]

EF: ejection fractions; FS: fractional shortening; LVDd: left ventricular dimensions at end diastole; LVDs: left ventricular dimensions; MDA: malondialdehyde; SOD: superoxide dismutase; TNF- : tumor necrosis factor- ; CRP: C-reactive protein; IL-1 : interleukin-1 ; TC: total cholesterol; IA: intimal area; IT: intimal thickness; HRIA: hyperplasia ratio of intimal area; PCNA: proliferating cell nuclear antigen; ABCA1: ATP-binding cassette A1; ABCG1: ATP-binding cassette G1; IL: interleukin; MMP-2: metalloproteinases-2; SNRT: sinus node recovery time; AVWCL: AV conduction Wenckebach cycle length; VERP: ventricular effective refractory period; VFT: increase ventricular fibrillation threshold; HW/BW: weight/body weight; LVW/BW: left ventricular weight/body weight; MD: myofibril diameters.