Effects of the Czech Propolis on Sperm Mitochondrial Function
Dose response relationship between oxygen consumption and final propolis concentration. State S3 (OXPHOS) = oxygen consumption rate in permeabilized spermatozoa measured with malate, glutamate, pyruvate, succinate, and ADP. State S3u = oxygen consumption rate in permeabilized spermatozoa measured after sequential addition of malate, glutamate, ADP, pyruvate, succinate, and FCCP. Oxygen fluxes were corrected for residual oxygen consumption and expressed per IU citrate synthase activity. , compared to the respective value without propolis.