Table 3: Traditional usage and methods of preparation of P. bleo.

PurposeMethod of preparationReferences

Detoxification and prevention of cancerMaking tea by boiling the leaves and/or the fruit and then drinking it warm or cool[2730]

Dietary purposes and health maintenanceEating the raw leaf, flower, and fruit[19, 28]

Health maintenance and revitalizing the bodyMaking juice from the leaves and boiling in water and drinking every morning[30]

To alleviate muscleacheMaking decoction from the leaves and then using as a warm bath for muscle ache[29]

To alleviate stomachachePreparing “ina kuamakalet”: the inflorescence is mixed with the excrements of red ants by using a special mortar and then moistened with water. The resulted mass is moulded to oval shape objects which are dried in sun. When using the remedy, these balls are rubbed in a small container with a small amount of water.[29]

To treat hemorrhoid, hypertension, diabetes, infections, headache, and inflammatory conditions (rheumatism and asthma)No information is available in the literature.[28, 31, 32]

To neutralize the effects of the snakebitesNo information is available in the literature.[33]