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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 396016, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/396016
Research Article

Optimization of Cat’s Whiskers Tea (Orthosiphon stamineus) Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Selective Chemotherapeutic Potential against Prostate Cancer Cells

1EMAN Research and Testing Laboratories, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
2Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (IPPT), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
3School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
4School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, 20 Cornwall Street, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia

Received 6 June 2014; Accepted 29 July 2014; Published 7 September 2014

Academic Editor: K. B. Harikumar

Copyright © 2014 Fouad Saleih R. Al-Suede et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cat’s whiskers (Orthosiphon stamineus) leaves extracts were prepared using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with full factorial design to determine the optimum extraction parameters. Nine extracts were obtained by varying pressure, temperature, and time. The extracts were analysed using FTIR, UV-Vis, and GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on human (colorectal, breast, and prostate) cancer and normal fibroblast cells. Moderate pressure (31.1 MPa) and temperature (60°C) were recorded as optimum extraction conditions with high yield (1.74%) of the extract (B2) at 60 min extraction time. The optimized extract (B2) displayed selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) cells (IC50 28 µg/mL) and significant antioxidant activity (IC50 42.8 µg/mL). Elevated levels of caspases 3/7 and 9 in B2-treated PC3 cells suggest the induction of apoptosis through nuclear and mitochondrial pathways. Hoechst and rhodamine assays confirmed the nuclear condensation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the cells. B2 also demonstrated inhibitory effects on motility and colonies of PC3 cells at its subcytotoxic concentrations. It is noteworthy that B2 displayed negligible toxicity against the normal cells. Chemometric analysis revealed high content of essential oils, hydrocarbon, fatty acids, esters, and aromatic sesquiterpenes in B2. This study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of cat’s whiskers in targeting prostate carcinoma.