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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 483513, 8 pages
Research Article

The Immunological Enhancement Activity of Propolis Flavonoids Liposome In Vitro and In Vivo

1Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2College of Life and Environment Science, Huangshan University, Huangshan 245041, China

Received 30 April 2014; Revised 1 July 2014; Accepted 23 September 2014; Published 14 October 2014

Academic Editor: Haruki Yamada

Copyright © 2014 Yang Tao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this study was to investigate and assess the effects of propolis flavonoids liposome imposed on the immune system by comparing it to propolis flavonoids and blank liposome. In vitro, the effects of the above drugs on macrophages were assessed by measuring the phagocytic function and cytokine production. In vivo, the immunological adjuvant activity of propolis flavonoids liposome was compared with those of propolis flavonoids and blank liposome. The results showed that in vitro propolis flavonoids liposome can significantly enhance the phagocytic function of macrophages and the release of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ. In addition, subcutaneous administration of propolis flavonoids liposome with ovalbumin to mice could effectively activate the cellular and humoral immune response, including inducing higher level concentrations of IgG, IL-4, and IFN-γ in serum and the proliferation rates of splenic lymphocytes. These findings provided valuable information regarding the immune modulatory function of propolis flavonoids liposome and indicated the possibility of use of propolis flavonoids liposome as a potential adjuvant.