Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 540580, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/540580
Research Article

Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice

1Department of Medicinal Botany and Health Applications, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591, Taiwan
2Department of Microbiology, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
4Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan

Received 27 September 2013; Revised 28 December 2013; Accepted 3 January 2014; Published 20 February 2014

Academic Editor: Hyunsu Bae

Copyright © 2014 Jaw-Chyun Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Ghosh and R. J. Playford, “Bioactive natural compounds for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders,” Clinical Science, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 547–556, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Kardell and S. Kallman, “Heavy metals in antlers of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from two Swedish forests, 1968–1983,” Ambio, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 232–235, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. M. Ko, T. T. Yip, and S. W. Tsao, “Epidermal growth factor from deer (Cervus elaphus) submaxillary gland and velvet antler,” General and Comparative Endocrinology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 431–440, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G.-J. Jhon, S.-Y. Park, S.-Y. Han, S. Lee, Y. Kim, and Y.-S. Chang, “Studies of the chemical structure of gangliosides in deer antler, Cervus nippon,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 123–127, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Lu, K. Wang, L. Li, Z. Xuan, and X. Gong, “Effect of velvet antler polypeptide on peripheral nerve regeneration,” Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1458–1461, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Moreau, J. Dupuis, N. H. Bonneau, and M. Lécuyer, “Clinical evaluation of a powder of quality elk velvet antler for the treatment of osteoarthrosis in dogs,” Canadian Veterinary Journal, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 133–139, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M.-J. Shao, S.-R. Wang, M.-J. Zhao et al., “The effects of velvet antler of deer on cardiac functions of rats with heart failure following myocardial infarction,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 825056, 5 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. J. R. Mikler, C. L. Theoret, and J. C. Haigh, “Effects of topical elk velvet antler on cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 835–840, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41788/0.
  10. L. You, M. Zhao, J. M. Regenstein, and J. Ren, “In vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo anti-fatigue effect of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) peptides prepared by papain digestion,” Food Chemistry, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 188–194, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Health Food Control Act of Taiwan, http://www.doh.gov.tw/CHT2006/DM/DM2_p01.aspx?class_no=45&now_fod_list_no=4271&level_no=3&doc_no=42534.
  12. C.-C. Huang, M.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Huang, H.-R. Yang, and C.-C. Hou, “Triterpenoid-rich extract from Antrodia camphorata improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 364741, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. F. Y. Su, H. P. Li, Y. M. Wang et al., “Protein component extraction and its bioactivity determination of sika deer antler base,” Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 18–20, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  14. F. Niu, Y. Zhao, F. Yang et al., “The study on anti-fatigue effect of sika antler base extract,” Food Science and Technology, vol. 36, pp. 218–220, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  15. X. Q. Shi, J. Z. Liu, Y. F. Yao et al., “Study of sika antler base on the anti-fatigue effect of mice,” Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 408–410, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  16. C.-Y. Kuo, T. Wang, T.-Y. Dai et al., “Effect of the velvet antler of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) on the prevention of an allergic airway response in mice,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 481318, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. C.-Y. Kuo, T.-Y. Dai, C.-H. Wang et al., “The antiinfective effects of velvet antler of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) on Staphylococcus aureus-infected mice,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 534069, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C.-Y. Hsiang, Y.-S. Chen, and T.-Y. Ho, “Nuclear factor-κB bioluminescence imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis for the assessment of host-biomaterial interaction in vivo,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 3042–3049, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Z. Sui, H. Yuan, Z. Liang et al., “An activity-maintaining sequential protein extraction method for bioactive assay and proteome analysis of velvet antlers,” Talanta, vol. 107, pp. 189–194, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  20. F. Wu, H. Li, L. Jin et al., “Deer antler base as a traditional Chinese medicine: a review of its traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 403–415, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. P. Hee, H. L. Do, G. P. Sung et al., “Proteome analysis of red deer antlers,” Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 3642–3653, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. U. Kierdorf, C. Li, and J. S. Price, “Improbable appendages: deer antler renewal as a unique case of mammalian regeneration,” Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 535–542, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. M. Francis and J. M. Suttie, “Detection of growth factors and proto-oncogene mRNA in the growing tip of red deer (Cervus elaphus) antler using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),” The Journal of Experimental Zoology, vol. 281, no. 2, pp. 36–42, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  24. J.-H. Koh, K.-M. Kim, J.-M. Kim, J.-C. Song, and H.-J. Suh, “Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis,” Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 691–694, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Wang, S. Li, Y. Fan et al., “Anti-fatigue activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 421–423, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C.-C. Hsu, M.-C. Ho, L.-C. Lin, B. Su, and M.-C. Hsu, “American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 11, no. 34, pp. 5327–5331, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L.-Z. Huang, B.-K. Huang, J. Liang et al., “Antifatigue activity of the liposoluble fraction from Acanthopanax senticosus,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 940–943, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. X.-L. Xue, X.-Y. Wu, J.-M. Xing et al., “Xiaopiyishen herbal extract granule improves the quality of life among people with fatigue-predominant subhealth and liver-qi stagnation and spleen-qi deficiency syndrome,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 509705, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. R. P. Henry, “Multiple roles of carbonic anhydrase in cellular transport and metabolism,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 58, pp. 523–538, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. X. Shang, S. Chen, H. Ren, Y. Li, and H. Huang, “Carbonic anhydrase III: the new hope for the elimination of exercise-induced muscle fatigue,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 427–429, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Weiss and L. A. Leinwand, “The mammalian myosin heavy chain gene family,” Annual Review of Cell & Developmental Biology, vol. 12, pp. 417–439, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Bárány, “ATPase activity of myosin correlated with speed of muscle shortening,” Journal of General Physiology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 197–218, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. S. Warkman, S. A. Whitman, M. K. Miller et al., “Developmental expression and cardiac transcriptional regulation of Myh7b, a third myosin heavy chain in the vertebrate heart,” Cytoskeleton, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 324–335, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Müller, A. J. Mazur, E. Behrmann et al., “Functional characterization of the human α-cardiac actin mutations Y166C and M305L involved in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 69, no. 20, pp. 3457–3479, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  35. A. M. Gordon, E. Homsher, and M. Regnier, “Regulation of contraction in striated muscle,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 853–924, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. L. Greaser and J. Gergely, “Reconstitution of troponin activity from three protein components,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 246, no. 13, pp. 4226–4233, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. Wei and J.-P. Jin, “Troponin T isoforms and posttranscriptional modifications: evolution, regulation and function,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 505, no. 2, pp. 144–154, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. J. Kee and E. C. Hardeman, “Tropomyosins in skeletal muscle diseases,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 644, pp. 143–157, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H.-Z. Feng, B. Wei, and J.-P. Jin, “Deletion of a genomic segment containing the cardiac troponin I gene knocks down expression of the slow troponin T gene and impairs fatigue tolerance of diaphragm muscle,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 284, no. 46, pp. 31798–31806, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. Agarkova, R. Schoenauer, E. Ehler et al., “The molecular composition of the sarcomeric M-band correlates with muscle fiber type,” European Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 193–204, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. Carlsson, B. K. Grove, T. Wallimann, H. M. Eppenberger, and L.-E. Thornell, “Myofibrillar M-band proteins in rat skeletal muscles during development,” Histochemistry, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Schoenauer, S. Lange, A. Hirschy, E. Ehler, J.-C. Perriard, and I. Agarkova, “Myomesin 3, a novel structural component of the M-band in striated muscle,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 376, no. 2, pp. 338–351, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus