Medicinal Plants in Management of Type 2 Diabetes and Neurodegenerative DisordersView this Special Issue
Review Article | Open Access
Phytochemical, Phytotherapeutical and Pharmacological Study of Momordica dioica
Momordica dioica is a perennial, dioecious, cucurbitaceous climbing creeper (commonly known as kakrol, spiny gourd or teasle gourd). It is native to Asia with extensive distribution in India and Bangladesh. It is used not only as preventive and curative agent for various diseases but also as vegetable with a significant nutritional value over thousands of years. This review aims to take an attempt to evaluate the phytochemical, ethnobotanical, phytotherapeutical and pharmacological properties of kakrol according to the view of traditional medicinal plant based treatment including ayurveda along with recent scientific observations. Kakrol is considered as an underutilized vegetable, although having significant presence of certain compounds containing higher nutritional value than many frequently consumed vegetables. Moreover, as a traditional medicinal plant, it is still potential for its phytochemical components that increase the demand of further extensive evaluation to justify its other therapeutical roles. Therefore, this effort will be helpful to researchers who interested to disclose the unjustified phytotherapeutical role of Momordica dioica.
Momordica dioica Roxb. is a perennial, dioecious () climber included in Cucurbitaceae family (Figure 1). Momordica genus contains about 80 species [1, 2]. According to the latest revision of Indian Momordica, there are six well identified species of which four are dioecious and two are monoecious . Although this genus is originated from Indo-Malayan region, it is now found to grow in India, Bangladesh, Srilanka, Myanmar, China, Japan, South East Asia, Polynesia, Tropical Africa, and South America [4, 5]. Its cultivation up to an altitude of 1500 meters in Assam and Garo hills of Meghalaya is reported . It is commonly known as spine gourd, teasel gourd or small bitter gourd worldwide whereas in Bangladesh it is known as kakrol and in India as kankro, kartoli, kantoli, kantola, kantroli, ban karola, or janglee karela [7–10]. Kakrol is about 5–7 meters in length, a popular summer vegetable of which its fruit, young twigs and leaves are used as vegetable [11–13].
2. Phytochemical and Nutrient Study
The fruit of Momordica dioica contains ashes: 9.1%, crude protein: 5.44%, crude lipid: 3.25%, crude fiber: 22.9%, and carbohydrate: 59.31%. Its fruit has high energy value (288.25 kcal/100 g) in dry weight. Its mineral ranges (mg/100 g dry weight,) are: potassium (4.63), sodium (1.62), calcium (7.37), iron (5.04), and zinc (3.83) . In another investigation, its nutritional value of per 100 g edible fruit is reported to contain 84.1% moisture, 7.7 g carbohydrate, 3.1 g protein, 3.1 g fat, 3.0 g fiber and 1.1 g minerals and small quantities of essential vitamins like carotene, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin .
Ali and Deokule evaluated some of its micronutrient and secondary metabolites as follows: calcium: 0.5 mg/g, sodium: 1.5 mg/g, potassium: 8.3 mg/g, iron: 0.14 mg/g, zinc: 1.34 mg/g, protein: 19.38%, fat: 4.7%, total phenolic compound: 3.7 mg/g, phytic acid: 2.8 mg/g, and ash value: 6.7% . Moreover, its fruit is recommended as nutritionally rich source of protein and good source of lipid, crude fiber, carbohydrate, iron, calcium, phosphorous. Additionally, it is the highest amount of carotene (162 mg/100 g of edible portion) container amongst the cucurbitaceous vegetables [17–19]. The ash content is reported as 3-4% containing a trace of manganese .
Tirmizi et al. screened it as a potential source of chromium and zinc . Whereas, Momordica dioica (peeled) contained 0.27 mg/kg of chromium and 4.91 mg/kg of zinc, Momordica dioica (unpeeled) contained 0.26 mg/kg of chromium and 11.0 mg/kg of zinc. The protein content of leaves and dry weight of aerial plant parts remained higher in male as compared to female defruited and monoecious plants . The fruit contains higher amount of ascorbic acid and iodine [23, 24]. The presence of secondary metabolites of fruit including alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, and saponins was determined . Among them, four compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract and five compounds were isolated from methanol extract consisting of alkaloids and flavonoids with NH and C=O functional groups, respectively. The alkaloids present in seed and root were called momordicin and Momordica foetida, respectively . Phytochemical investigations summurized in Table 1 also showed the presence of lectins, β-sitosterol, saponin glycosides, triterpenes of ursolic acid, hederagenin, oleanolic acid, α-spinasterol, stearic acid, gypsogenin, momodicaursenol, and three new compounds named 3-o-benzoyl-11-oxo-ursolic acid, 3-o-benzoyl-6-oxo-ursolic acid, and 3-o--D-glucuronopyranosyl gypsogenin [27–32].
3. Ethnobotanical and Phytotherapeutical Study
According to Ayurveda (Table 2), not only its fruits have diuretic, laxative, hepatoprotective, antivenomous, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, antipyretic, antileprosy, antidiabetic, and antidepressant properties but also its leaves have antihelminthic, aphrodisiac, antihemorroidal, hepatoprotective, antibronchitic, antipyretic, antiasthmatic, and analgesic properties [33, 34]. Fresh fruit juice and cooked fruit in small amount of oil are prescribed for hypertension and diabetes, respectively. Oral administration of 50 mL of root juice is advised once a day with empty stomach to beat diabetes. The juice of root is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of the house lizard. The juice of the leaves are mixed with coconut, pepper, red sandalwood, and so forth in order to form an ointment and applied to the head to relieve pain. Dried fruit powder applied into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge from the schneiderian mucous membrane . Root juice has stimulant, astringent, antiseptic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcerant effect. The mucilaginous tubers act as antihelminthic, spermicidal, and antifertility abortifacient agent . The root of the male plant is used in snake bites and scorpion sting . The superficial use of root paste over the whole body is believed to act as a sedative in high fever with delirium [38, 39]. Beside the superficial and oral administration of leaf paste for skin disease, tender fruits are rubbed on skin for pimples and acne and roasted seeds are used for eczema and other skin problems . Root powder is also applied for softening skin and reducing perspiration. The protective role of the leaves against chronic skin diseases is also reported. A preparation called “Panchatikta ghrita” is made by boiling 800 g each of neem bark, leaves of Momordica dioica, Solanum surattense, Tinospora cordifolia, and bark of Adhatoda vasica, in 5-6 liters of water up to its reduction to quarter and then adding of 3.5 liters of butter and about 3 kg myrobalans and is recommended as one tablespoonful with little hot milk internally twice daily in chronic skin diseases . Mucilaginous tuber of female plant and toasted root are used in bleeding piles and bowel infections. The traditional use of Momrdica dioica against bleeding piles (hemorrhoids) is also reported [42, 43].
4. Pharmacological Study
4.1. Antioxidant Activity
Compounds derived from natural sources are capable of providing protection against free radicals . The alcoholic extract inhibited the formation of oxygen derived free radicals (ODFR) in vitro with 4000 μg/mL ascorbic system . In another work, the free radical scavenging potential of the tuberous roots was studied by different in vitro methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, and haemoglobin glycosylation assay. Total antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract was found to be 26 μg/mL which is equivalent to ascorbic acid. Moreover, its ethanol extract showed percentage inhibition of haemoglobin glycosylation as 66.63 and 74.14 at conc. of 500 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, while that of standard DL -tocopherol was 61.53% and 86.68% inhibition at same concentration . The antioxidant activities of methanol and aqueous extract of fruits were analyzed and the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, sterol, alkaloids, amino acids, and so forth, were found . Among those compounds, due to the presence of flavonoids, its fruit was reported as a potent antioxidant .
4.2. Analgesic Activity
Ilango et al. and Vaidya and Shreedhara reported that both hexane extract and soluble portion of methanolic extract of Momordica dioica fruit pulp exhibited analgesic activity when compared to standard drug [49, 50]. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts exhibited significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing syndrome when compared to the vehicle treated control group. But among them petroleum ether and methanol extract gave more significant analgesic activity than ethyl acetate extract .
4.3. Nephroprotective Activity
The ethanol extract of seeds was screened and marked nephroprotective as well as curative activities was found without any toxicity caused by nephrotoxin-like gentamicin . The nephroprotective and curative activities of its fruit extract ware also observed . Gupta et al. evaluated the renal protective effect of Momordica dioica extract in streptozotocin-diabetic rats .
4.4. Neuroprotective Activity
The effect of methanol and aqueous extract of fruit pulp was observed on the central nervous system by using neuropharmacological experimental models in mice. These extracts were used for a dose-dependent reduction of the onset and duration of a reduction in locomotor activity. It was suggested that methanol and aqueous extract of fruit pulp (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) had neuroprotective activities .
4.5. Antiallergic Activities
4.6. Antiulcer Activity
Vijayakumar screened Momordica dioica extract mediated antiulcerogenic effect on ethanol-induced ulcer model of rat. A significant decrease occurred in the level of H+-K+ATPase, volume of gastric juice, and acid output. Gastric wall mucus, , and catalase enzyme were increased significantly but antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase were decreased . Its gastroprotective and ulcer healing activities were also observed by Vijayakumar et al. .
4.7. Anticancer Activity
Luo et al. showed that the CHCl3 extract of roots and five isolated constituents had anticancer activity during pharmacological testing on cancer cell (L1210). The growth inhibitory index (%) of α-spinasterol-3-o--D-glucopyranoside was shown to be 50%, at the dose of 4 μg/mL .
4.8. Antimicrobial Activity
Shrinivas et al. studied methanolic extract and aqueous extract of fruit and found that methanolic extract had more promising antimicrobial activity . Arekar et al. screened antibacterial activities of ethyl acetate extract. The concentration of 200 μg/disc was more active against E. coli compared to S. aureus, S. paratyphi, and P. mirabilis bacteria. Ethyl Acetate extract of in vitro shoot culture (yield: 0.26%) showed maximum inhibition zone against S. paratyphi and P. mirabilis while ethyl acetate extract of in vitro callus culture (yield: 21.5%) showed maximum inhibition zone against S. aureus . On the other hand, Singh et al. found its no promising antimycobacterial activity .
4.9. Antidiabetic Activity
Antidiabetic specifically oral hypoglycemic effects of Momordica dioica in rat model was screened by Fernandopulle et al. . Reddy et al. and Singh et al. showed aqueous, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extract of fruit mediated antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced experimental rats [63, 64]. Moreover, Sharma and Arya reported ethyl acetate and ethanol extract containing steroids, triterpenoids had potential role in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and broadly type 2 diabetes . Gupta et al. investigated the antidiabetic and renal protective effect of Momordica dioica methanolic extract (MDMtE) in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. MDMtE treatment markedly reduced serum glucose and increased serum insulin and urea levels. Furthermore, histologic observation of kidney of diabetic rats showed degenerative changes in glomerulus and renal tubules .
4.10. Antimalarial Activity
Misra et al. screened alcoholic extract in vivo and in vitro for antimalarial effect against NK65 strain of Plasmodium berghei, Jurinea macrocephala, and Aegle marmelos and found them to possess schizontocidal activity .
4.11. Anti-Inflammatory Activity
The anti-inflammatory effect of the alcoholic extract of roots was evaluated during CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity . Ilango et al. evaluated both hexane extract and methanolic extract of fruit pulp mediated anti-inflammatory activities .
4.12. Hepatoprotective and Antihepatotoxic Activity
CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity prevention of methanol extract of Momordica dioica was observed by Chaudhary et al. . Although Govind reported the hepatoprotective and antihepatotoxicity effect of leaf, Kumar et al. specifically mentioned the role of aqueous and methanol extract of leaves against it [68, 69]. Jain et al. examined leaf as a potent hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats by in vivo antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. They were positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts although ethanolic extract was found more potent hepatoprotective . Kushwaha et al. evaluated the flavonoidal fraction from ethanolic extract of fruit mediated hepatoprotective activity in wistar strain of albino rats of either sex against CCl4 induced hepatic damage . Rakh et al. reported that the alcoholic extract of roots significantly reduced CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats by inhibiting the formation of radicals in vitro . The saponin fraction of Momordica dioica (27.5 and 55 mg/kg) administered to the CCl4 treated rats to protect the liver cells from liver damages on hepatocytes and silymarin (100 mg/kg), a well-known natural antihepatotoxic drug was used as standard . The hexane extract and ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp at a dose of 400 mg/kg administered for 7 days in rat exhibited a significant therapeutic effect . Sato et al. observed significant lowering of liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats. Fecal lipid excretion was increased and lymphatic transport of triacylglycerol and phospholipids were decreased in rats which were fed the kakrol after permanent lymph cannulation. Moreover, -butanol extract caused a significant reduction in the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and liver lipids by inhibiting lipid absorption .
4.13. Antifertility Activity
Shreedhar et al. reported the antifertility activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Momordica dioica root. The extracts showed moderate estrogenic activity and caused significant increase in uterine weight. Moreover, at a dose of 200 mg/kg, aqueous extract showed 83% and ethanolic extract showed 100% abortifacient activity . Kudaravalli evaluated the ethanolic extract of fruit mediated antifertility activities of female rats but found no male antifertility activity at the dose of 250 mg/kg .
4.14. Antiedemic Activity
Shreedhara and Vaidya administered the alcoholic extract orally which significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema. The activity was compared with ibuprofen (200 mg/kg) .
4.15. Antifeedant, Insecticidal, Grain Protectant, and Allelopathic Activity
Mishra et al. reported the role of Momordica dioica seed oil as insecticide and found satisfactory level of natural insecticidal activity up to 100% mortality at 4% conc. in 24 hours. Moreover, its lower conc. up to 2% was found to be effective but for 100% mortality longer time was required. They suggested the presence of alkaloid momordicin in oil was responsible for it . In another work, Mishra et al. evaluated its seed oil’s potential as grain protectant against Callosobruchus chinensis upon the stored legume-pulse grain. It was applied as a dose of 6–8 mL/kg to legume pulse grain sample for 60 days. As a result, appeared degree of dehusking was increased (%) from 40.00 to 72.59, 59.88 to 92.44, 63.39 to 87.50 and 57.00 to 79.43 for Pigeon pea (Canjanas cajan), Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), Urdbean (Phaseolus mungo), Mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus), respectively . Narasimhan et al. and Meriga et al. reported that the hexane extract and ethyl acetate extract of the fruit pulp had moderate and concentration dependent antifeedant activity against Spodoptera litura [78, 79]. Allelopathy refers to the chemical inhibition of one species by another by releasing chemicals into the environment where it affects the development and growth of neighboring plants. Ahire and Deokule observed the leaf extract of M. dioica mediated allelopathic activity on seedling growth as well as seed germination of P. aconitifolius and found major toxicity at a dose of 2.0% and 2.5% w/v of phytoextracts . These above information are summarized in Table 3.
The traditional use of medicinal plants has a long history. Ancient people as well as our ancestors were mainly dependent on plants for their recovery against diseases. But, the recent tendency to avoid natural sources rather than artificial sources against disease is frustrating. Because continuous reports of antibiotic resistance as well as the side effects of synthetic drugs all over the world are indicating a global health alert. The higher occurrence rate of worldwide diabetes, cancer, obesity, hypertension, and neurodegenerative diseases becomes alarming to all. Huge researches are carried out to find the causes and remedies of them. Therefore, to search for a better alternative than synthetic drug becomes the demand of time.
Medicinal plants may be a good option to play pivotal role against such complications. But, before that their previous use and curability should be justified. Medicinal plants are the source of enormous secondary metabolites. The diverse role of secondary metabolites may provide a key of the door of undiscovered remedy against diseases. In that case, long term research on medicinal plant is essential to justify their potential. Moreover, the use of medicinal plants is important for its ecofriendly significance as well as its fewer side effects than other synthetic drugs. Additionally, it will be comparatively safer and cheaper than man-made drugs formulation.
South Asia, as one of the highest sources of medicinal plant in the world, provides enormous medicinal plants including kakrol, having several significant folk uses but not clinically evaluated till now. Therefore, vast chances have been created to justify the dynamic ethnobotanical and phytotherapeutical roles of several plants for future researchers. This paper has mainly focused on the phytotherapeutical and pharmacological potential of Momordica dioica. As it contains significant amount of antioxidant, vitamin, secondary metabolites, and other important ingredients, these may be helpful to fight against several diseases including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of kakrol containing steroids, tritepenoids etc. have potential role in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and broadly type 2 diabetes. Similarly, methanol and aqueous extract of its fruit pulp have neuroprotective activities.
Therefore, this paper will be fruitful if it stimulates the researcher’s emphasis to justify the unrevealed but potential therapeutic properties of Momordica dioica against diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and other life threatening disorders.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests in this paper.
This paper was gratefully supported by Biomedical Research Unit, School of Science, Primeasia University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
- L. K. Bharathi, A. D. Munshi, S. Chandrashekaran, T. K. Behera, A. B. Das, and K. J. John, “Cytotaxonomical analysis of Momordica L. (Cucurbitaceae) species of Indian occurrence,” Journal of Genetics, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2011.
- N. M. Raj, K. P. Prasanna, and K. V. Peter, “Momordica spp,” in Genetic Improvement of Vegetables Crops, G. Kallo and B. O. Bergh, Eds., pp. 239–243, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1993.
- J. K. Joseph, Studies on ecogeography and genetic diversity of the genus Momordica L. in India [Ph.D. thesis], Department of Botany, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, India, 2005.
- M. M. Rashid, Bangladeshi Shabjee, Bangla academy, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1st edition, 1976.
- J. D. Hooker, The Flora of British India, vol. 2, Reeve Co, Kent, UK, 1961.
- D. Ram, G. Kalloo, and M. K. Banerjee, “Popularizing kakrol and kartoli: the indigenous nutritious vegetables,” Indian Horticulture, vol. 6, 9, p. 11, 2002.
- R. N. Trivedi and R. P. Roy, “Cytological studies in some species of Momordica,” Genetica, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 282–291, 1972.
- G. K. Rai, M. Singh, N. P. Rai, D. R. Bhardwaj, and S. Kumar, “In vitro propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD analysis,” Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 273–280, 2012.
- M. S. Shekhawat, N. S. Shekhawat, K. Harish, M. Phulwaria, and A. K. Gupta, “High frequency plantlet regeneration from nodal segment culture of female Momordica dioica (Roxb.),” Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 133–137, 2011.
- H. Singh, “Importance of local names of some useful plants in ethnobotanical study,” Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 365–370, 2008.
- S. N. Sastri, The Wealth of India-Raw Materials, CSIR, New Delhi, India, 1962.
- S. Bandyopadhyay and S. K. Mukherjee, “Wild edible plants of Koch Bihar district,” Natural Product Radiance, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 64–72, 2009.
- M. I. Zuberi and A. Bishwas, “Biodiversity degradation in Bangladesh: wild kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) an endangered species,” Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Development (Bangladesh), vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 66–74, 1998.
- A. Aberoumand, “Screening of less known two food plants for comparison of nutrient contents: Iranian and Indian vegetables,” Functional Foods in Health and Disease, vol. 10, pp. 416–423, 2011.
- D. Singh, V. Bahadur, D. B. Singh, and G. Ghosh, “Spine gourd (Momordica dioica): an underutilized vegetable with high nutritional and medicinal values,” ISHS Acta Horticulturae, vol. 809, pp. 241–248, 2009.
- A. Ali and S. S. Deokule, “Comparison of phenolic compounds of some edible plants of Iran and India,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 8, pp. 26–31, 2008.
- T. Maharana and P. Tripathy, “Agrotechniques of Momordica dioica growing spine gourd in pots,” Indian Horticulture, pp. 16–17, 1996.
- D. Ram, M. K. Banerjee, S. Pandey, and U. Srivastava, “Collection and evaluation of Kartoli (Momordica dioica Roxb. Ex. Willd),” Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resource, vol. 14, pp. 114–116, 2001.
- L. K. Bharathi, G. Naik, H. S. Singh, D. K. Dora, and KV. Peter, “Spine gourd,” in Underutilized and Underexploited Horticultural Crops, K. V. Peter, Ed., pp. 289–295, New India Publishing, New Delhi, India, 2007.
- National Plant Data Center, NRCS, USDA, Baton Rouge, La, USA, http://plants.usda.gov/.
- S. A. Tirmizi, M. H. S. Wattoo, M. Mazhar, F. H. Wattoo, A. N. Memon, and J. Iqbal, “Analytical investigation of chromium and zinc in sweet, sour and bitter tasting fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants,” Quimica Nova, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1573–1577, 2007.
- A. Ghosh, “Mechanism of monocarpic senescence of Momordica dioica: source-sink regulation by reproductive organs,” Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 55–56, 2005.
- M. R. H. Bhuiya, A. K. M. A. Habib, and M. M. Rashid, “Content and loss of vitamin C in vegetables during storage and cooking,” Bangladesh Horticulture, vol. 5, pp. 1–6, 1977.
- M. K. Rao, Flora of Maharashtra State, Dicotyledons, vol. 2, 2001.
- K. N. Kumara and V. P. Bulugahapitiya, “A preliminary chemical study on secondary metabolites present in fruits of Momordica dioica (Thumbakariwila),” in Proceedings of the 2nd Academic Sessions, p. 96, 2004.
- C. C. Jian, H. C. Ming, L. N. Rui, G. A. Cordel, and S. X. Qiuz, “Cucurbitacins and cucurbitane glycosides: structures and biological activities,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 386–399, 2005.
- M. Ali and V. Srivastava, “Characterization of Phytoconstituents of the Fruits of Momordica dioica,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 287–289, 1998.
- A. M. Sadyojatha and V. P. Vaidya, “Chemical constituents of the roots of momordica dioica roxb,” Indian Drugs, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 473–475, 1996.
- B. N. Ghosh, B. Dasgupta, and P. K. Sircar, “Purification of lectin from a tropical plant Momordica dioica Roxb.,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 253–255, 1981.
- S. R. Joshi, K. Vasantha, and J. S. Robb, “An unusual anti-H lectin inhibited by milk from individuals with the Bombay phenotype,” Immunohematology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2005.
- L. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Zhang, and R. Huang, “Triterpenes and steroidal compounds from Momordica dioica,” Yaoxue Xuebao, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 839–842, 1998.
- L. Luo and Z. Li, “Two new triterpenes of ursolic acids from momordica dioica,” Acta Botanica Yunnanica, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1–3, 1997.
- A. K. Nadkarni, Indian Materia Medica, vol. 1, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, India, 2007.
- Publication and Information Directorate, The Wealth of India. First Supplement Series, NISCIR, vol. 4, CSIR, New Delhi, India, 1962.
- K. R. Kirtikar and B. D. Basu, Indian Medicinal Plants, vol. 2, International Book Distributors, Dehradun, India, 1999.
- G. V. Satyavati, A. K. Gupta, and N. Tandon, Medicinal plants of India, vol. 2, ICMR, New Delhi, India, 1987.
- K. R. Kirtikar and B. D. Basu, Indian Medicinal Plants, vol. 2, Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, India, 1981.
- G. V. Satyavati, M. K. Raina, and M. Sharma, Medicinal Plants of India, vol. 1, ICMR, New Delhi, India, 1987.
- J. Anjaria, M. Parabia, G. Bhatt, and R. Khamar, Natural Heals: A Glossary of Selected Indigenous Medicinal Plants of India, Sristi Innovations, Ahamedabad, India, 2 edition, 2002.
- G. K. Sharma, “Medical ethnobotany in the Shivalik Range of the Himalayas,” Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, vol. 7, pp. 12–16, 2004.
- M. C. Sharma and C. Joshi, “Plants used in skin diseases of animals,” Natural Product Radiance, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 294, 2004.
- B. A. Jadeja, N. K. Odedra, and K. R. Odedra, “Herbal remedies used for haemorrhoids by tribals of Saurashtra, Gujarat,” Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 348–352, 2006.
- P. Oudhia, Ankol (Alangium) based Indigenous Herbal Medicines for Bleeding Piles (Hemorrhoids): Pankaj Oudhias Medicinal Plant Database, http://www.pankajoudhia.com/.
- S. Chanda and R. Dave, “In vitro models for antioxidant activity evaluation and some medicinal plants possessing antioxidant properties: an overview,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 3, no. 13, pp. 981–996, 2001.
- C. S. Shreedhara and V. P. Vaidya, “Screening of Momordica dioica for hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities,” Natural Product Sciences, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 157–161, 2006.
- C. S. Shreedhara, H. N. Aswatha Ram, S. B. Zanwar, and F. P. Gajera, “In vitro antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Momordica dioica Roxb (Cucurbitaceae),” Pharmacologyonline, vol. 3, pp. 622–633, 2011.
- B. Shrinivas, S. Anil, M. Parera, and M. Saxena, “Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Momordica dioica Roxb. (Ex Willd),” Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 1075–1078, 2009.
- A. Jain, M. Soni, L. Deb et al., “Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2008.
- K. Ilango, G. Maharajan, and S. Narasimhan, “Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Momordica dioica Fruit Pulp,” Natural Product Sciences, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 210–212, 2003.
- V. P. Vaidya and C. S. Shreedhara, “Medicinal values of the root of Momordica dioica (Cucurbitaceae),” in Proceedings of the 1st National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (CIMAP 03), pp. 278–281, Lucknow, India, 2003.
- M. S. Rakh and S. R. Chaudhari, “Evaluation of analgesic activity of momordica dioica roxb. Willd fruit pulp,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 53–56, 2010.
- A. Jain and A. K. Singhai, “Effect of Momordica dioica Roxb on gentamicin model of acute renal failure,” Natural Product Research, vol. 24, no. 15, pp. 1379–1389, 2010.
- A. Jain and A. K. Singhai, “Nephroprotective activity of Momordica dioica Roxb. in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity,” Natural Product Research, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 846–854, 2010.
- R. Gupta, P. Katariya, M. Mathur et al., “Antidiabetic and renoprotective activity of Momordica dioica in diabetic rats,” Diabetologia Croatica, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 81–88, 2011.
- M. S. Rakh and S. R. Chaudhari, “Evaluation of CNS depressant activity of Momordica dioica Roxb willd fruit pulp,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 2, supplement 4, pp. 124–126, 2010.
- M. S. Rakh, A. N. Khedkar, N. N. Aghav, and S. R. Chaudhari, “Antiallergic and analgesic activity of Momordica dioica Roxb. Willd fruit seed,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 2, supplement 1, pp. S192–S196, 2012.
- P. P. Gupta, R. C. Srimal, and J. S. Tandon, “Antiallergic activity of some traditional Indian medicinal plants,” International Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 15–18, 1993.
- B. M. R. Fernandopulle, W. D. Ratnasooriya, and E. H. Karunanayake, “Evaluation of two cucurbits (Genus: Momordica) for gastroprotective and ulcer healing activity in rats,” Medical Science Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 85–88, 1996.
- M. Vijayakumar, M. B. Eswaran, S. K. Ojha, C. V. Rao, and A. K. S. Rawat, “Antiulcer activity of hydroalchol extract of Momordica dioica roxb. fruit,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 572–577, 2011.
- J. A. Arekar, A. R. Arekar, and G. T. Paratkar, “Screening of antibacterial activity of flavonoid fractions of Momordica dioica, Roxb.,” Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 235–237, 2013.
- R. Singh, S. Hussain, R. Verma, and P. Sharma, “Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 366–371, 2013.
- B. M. R. Fernandopulle, E. H. Karunanayake, and W. D. Ratnasooriya, “Oral hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica dioica in the rat,” Medical Science Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 137–139, 1994.
- G. T. Reddy, B. R. Kumar, and G. K. Mohan, “Anithyperglycemic activity of Momordica dioica fruits in alloxan-induced diabetic rats,” Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine, vol. 9, pp. 33–34, 2005.
- R. Singh, A. Seherawat, and P. Sharma, “Hypoglycemic, antidiabetic and toxicological evaluation of Momordica dioica fruit extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 454–467, 2011.
- R. Sharma and V. Arya, “A review on fruits having anti-diabetic potential,” Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 204–212, 2011.
- P. Misra, N. L. Pal, P. Y. Guru, J. C. Katiyar, and J. S. Tandon, “Antimalarial activity of traditional plants against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei,” International Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 19–23, 1991.
- G. D. Chaudhary, P. Kamboj, I. Singh, and A. N. Kalia, “Herbs as liver savers—a review,” Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 397–408, 2010.
- P. Govind, “Medicinal plants against liver diseases,” International Research Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 115–121, 2011.
- C. Kumar, A. Ramesh, J. N. Suresh Kumar, and I. B. Mohammed, “A review on hepatoprotective activity of medicinal plants,” International Journal of Pharmaceuticl Science and Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 501–515, 2011.
- S. K. Kushwaha, A. Jain, V. B. Gupta, and J. R. Patel, “Hepatoprotective activity of the fruits of Momordica dioica,” Nigerian Journal of Natural Product and Medicine, vol. 9, pp. 29–31, 2005.
- S.M. Firdous, R. Koneri, P. Haldar, and G. Burdipad, “Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of saponin of Momordica dioica roxb. Against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in rats,” Pharmacologyonline, vol. 3, pp. 487–494, 2008.
- K. Ilango, G. Maharajan, and S. Narasimhan, “Anti-hepatotoxic activity of Fruit pulp of Momordica dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae),” Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 44–48, 2004.
- M. Sato, T. Ueda, K. Nagata et al., “Dietary kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) flesh inhibits triacylglycerol absorption and lowers the risk for development of fatty liver in rats,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 236, no. 10, pp. 1139–1146, 2011.
- C. S. Shreedhara, K. S. R. Pai, and V. P. Vaidya, “Postcoital antifertility activity of the root of momordica dioica roxb,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 528–531, 2001.
- M. Kudaravalli, Screening of anti fertility activity of momordica dioica, roxb in male and female rats [M.S. thesis], Department of Pharmacology, V.I.P.S, Bangalore, India, 2006.
- D. Mishra, A. K. Shukla, A. K. Dubey, A. K. Dixit, and K. Singh, “Insecticidal Activity of Vegetable Oils against Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt., under Field Condition,” Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 55, pp. 227–231, 2006.
- D. Mishra, A. K. Shukla, K. K. Tripathi, A. Singh, A. K. Dixit, and K. Singh, “Efficacy of application of vegetable seed oils as grain protectant against infestation by Callosobruchus chinensis and its effect on milling fractions and apparent degree of dehusking of legume-pulses,” Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2006.
- S. Narasimhan, S. Kannan, K. Ilango, and G. Maharajan, “Antifeedant activity of Momordica dioica fruit pulp extracts on Spodoptera litura,” Fitoterapia, vol. 76, no. 7-8, pp. 715–717, 2005.
- B. Meriga, R. Mopuri, and T. MuraliKrishna, “Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 391–395, 2012.
- Y. R. Ahire and S. S. Deokule, “Screening of allelopathic activity of momordica dioica and mukia maderaspatana,” Research & Reviews, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 15–21, 2012.
Copyright © 2014 Sattya Narayan Talukdar and Mohammad Nazir Hossain. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.