Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 825181, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/825181
Research Article

Preventive Effect of Crocin on Osteoporosis in an Ovariectomized Rat Model

1Department of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, No. 127, West Changle Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032, China
2Department of Orthopaedics, Baoji Central Hospital, No. 8, Jiangtan Road, Baoji, Shaanxi 721008, China

Received 20 May 2014; Revised 24 July 2014; Accepted 29 July 2014; Published 14 August 2014

Academic Editor: Wen Chuan Lin

Copyright © 2014 Peng-Chong Cao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy, “Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 6, pp. 785–795, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  2. R. Eastell, D. M. Black, S. Boonen et al., “Effect of once-yearly zoledronic acid five milligrams on fracture risk and change in femoral neck bone mineral density,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 3215–3225, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Burge, B. Dawson-Hughes, D. H. Solomon, J. B. Wong, A. King, and A. Tosteson, “Incidence and economic burden of osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States, 2005–2025,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 465–475, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. K. Omsland, N. Emaus, G. S. Tell et al., “Mortality following the first hip fracture in Norwegian women and men (1999–2008). A NOREPOS study,” Bone, vol. 63, pp. 81–86, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. Marcus, “An expanded overview of postmenopausal osteoporosis,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 195–197, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. T. Sugerman, “JAMA patient page. Osteoporosis,” JAMA, vol. 311, no. 1, article 104, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  7. O. Johnell and J. A. Kanis, “An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1726–1733, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. C. Stevenson, “Justification for the use of HRT in the long-term prevention of osteoporosis,” Maturitas, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 113–126, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. M. Prelevic, T. Kocjan, and A. Markou, “Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women,” Minerva Endocrinologica, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 27–36, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Gray, “Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy: the Million Women Study,” The Lancet, vol. 362, no. 9392, pp. 1332–1332, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. B. Orija and A. Mehta, “Hormone replacement therapy: current controversies,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 59, no. 5, article 657, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. V. Lacey Jr., P. J. Mink, J. H. Lubin et al., “Menopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of ovarian cancer,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 3, pp. 334–341, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. E. Rossouw, G. L. Anderson, R. L. Prentice et al., “Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 3, pp. 321–333, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. K. Lee, K. W. Kim, J. Y. Choi et al., “Bisphosphonates-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in Korea: a preliminary report,” Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, vol. 39, pp. 9–13, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. B. L. Riggs, S. F. Hodgson, M. W. O'Fallon et al., “Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 322, no. 12, pp. 802–809, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. “In brief: cancer risk with salmon calcitonin,” Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics, vol. 55, no. 1414, p. 29, 2013.
  17. H. J. Verhaar and W. F. Lems, “PTH-analogs: comparable or different?” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 130–132, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. Qi, Y.-B. Yan, W. Lei et al., “Prevention of disuse osteoporosis in rats by Cordyceps sinensis extract,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2347–2357, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. X. Zhao, Z. X. Wu, Y. Zhang et al., “Anti-osteoporosis activity of Cibotium barometz extract on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 1083–1088, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, C. Li et al., “Du-Zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) cortex extract prevent OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats,” Bone, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 553–559, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. Hosseinzadeh, M. H. Modaghegh, and Z. Saffari, “Crocus sativus L. (saffron) extract and its active constituents (crocin and safranal) on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 343–350, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. L. Rios, M. C. Recio, R. M. Ginger et al., “An update review of saffron and its active constituents,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 10, pp. 189–193, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. Zargari, Medicinal Plants, Tehran University Press, 1990.
  24. H. Hosseinzadeh and M. Nassiri-Asl, “Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the canon of medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 475–483, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Rezaee and H. Hosseinzadeh, “Safranal: from an aromatic natural product to a rewarding pharmacological agent,” Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 12–26, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. H. Alavizadeh and H. Hosseinzadeh, “Bioactivity assessment and toxicity of crocin: a comprehensive review,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 64, pp. 65–80, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. F. I. Abdullaev and J. J. Espinosa-Aguirre, “Biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 426–432, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. Wang, T. Han, Y. Zhu et al., “Antidepressant properties of bioactive fractions from the extract of Crocus sativus L.,” Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 24–30, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Hosseinzadeh and N. B. Noraei, “Anxiolytic and hypnotic effect of Crocus sativus aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 768–774, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. J. Hong and K. S. Yang, “Anti-inflammatory activities of crocetin derivatives from processed Gardenia jasminoides,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 933–940, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. N. Nam, Y.-M. Park, H.-J. Jung et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of crocin and crocetin in rat brain microglial cells,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 648, no. 1–3, pp. 110–116, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. Hosseinzadeh, H. R. Sadeghnia, F. A. Ghaeni, V. S. Motamedshariaty, and S. A. Mohajeri, “Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, on recognition and spatial memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 381–386, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Razavi, H. Hosseinzadeh, K. Abnous, V. S. Motamedshariaty, and M. Imenshahidi, “Crocin restores hypotensive effect of subchronic administration of diazinon in rats,” Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 64–72, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Mehdizadeh, M. Parizadeh, A. Khooei, S. Mehri, and H. Hosseinzadeh, “Cardioprotective effect of saffron extract and safranal in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in wistar rats,” Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Hosseinzadeh and F. Talebzadeh, “Anticonvulsant evaluation of safranal and crocin from Crocus sativus in mice,” Fitoterapia, vol. 76, no. 7-8, pp. 722–724, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. X. Li, T. Huang, G. Jiang, W. Gong, H. Qian, and C. Zou, “Synergistic apoptotic effect of crocin and cisplatin on osteosarcoma cells via caspase induced apoptosis,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 221, no. 3, pp. 197–204, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Hemshekhar, M. S. Santhosh, K. Sunitha et al., “A dietary colorant crocin mitigates arthritis and associated secondary complications by modulating cartilage deteriorating enzymes, inflammatory mediators and antioxidant status,” Biochimie, vol. 94, no. 12, pp. 2723–2733, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. N. Assimopoulou, Z. Sinakos, and V. P. Papageorgiou, “Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 997–1000, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. A. El-Beshbishy, M. H. Hassan, H. A. A. Aly, A. S. Doghish, and A. A. A. Alghaithy, “Crocin “saffron” protects against beryllium chloride toxicity in rats through diminution of oxidative stress and enhancing gene expression of antioxidant enzymes,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 83, pp. 47–54, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. M. Asdaq and M. N. Inamdar, “Potential of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituent, crocin , as hypolipidemic and antioxidant in rats,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 162, no. 2, pp. 358–372, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. C. Manolagas, “From estrogen-centric to aging and oxidative stress: a revised perspective of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 266–300, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Li, Y. Shen, and T. J. Wronski, “Time course of femoral neck osteopenia in ovariectomized rats,” Bone, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 55–61, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, S.-P. Li, L. Ma, L.-J. Ding, and H. Ji, “Alleviation of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats by Panax notoginseng saponins,” Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 336–345, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. H. Turner and D. B. Burr, “Basic biomechanical measurements of bone: a tutorial,” Bone, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 595–608, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Kono, “Generation of superoxide radical during autoxidation of hydroxylamine and an assay for superoxide dismutase,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 189–195, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi, and K. Yagi, “Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 351–358, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. A. Schreiweis, J. P. Butler, N. H. Kulkarni et al., “A proteomic analysis of adult rat bone reveals the presence of cartilage/chondrocyte markers,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 466–476, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. E. Wright, J. B. Frye, B. N. Timmermann, and J. L. Funk, “Protection of trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats by turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Is dependent on extract composition,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 17, pp. 9498–9504, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Yamaguchi, C. Shinohara, S. Kojima, M. Sodeoka, and T. Tsuji, “(2E,6R)-8-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-2-octenoic acid, a novel Anti-osteoporotic monoterpene, isolated from Cistanche salsa,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 731–735, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. Hwang, I. Jeong, K. J. Ahn, and H. Y. Chung, “The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 584–590, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. Zhang, J. Zhang, C. Fong, X. Yao, and M. Yang, “Herba epimedii flavonoids suppress osteoclastic differentiation and bone resorption by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis,” Biochimie, vol. 94, no. 12, pp. 2514–2522, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. J. Wronski, L. M. Dann, K. S. Scott, and L. R. Crooke, “Endocrine and pharmacological suppressors of bone turnover protect against osteopenia in ovariectomized rats,” Endocrinology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 810–816, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. T. Turner, J. J. Vandersteenhoven, and N. H. Bell, “The effects of ovariectomy and 17 beta-estradiol on cortical bone histomorphometry in growing rats,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 115–122, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. X. Q. Liu, L. Cui, and T. Wu, “Study of bone histomorphometric changes at regular intervals in OVX rats,” Chinese Journal of Osteoporosis, vol. 11, pp. 427–429, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. F. McElroy and G. N. Wade, “Short- and long-term effects of ovariectomy on food intake, body weight, carcass composition, and brown adipose tissue in rats,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 361–365, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Z. C. Dang, R. L. Van Bezooijen, M. Karperien, S. E. Papapoulos, and C. W. G. M. Löwik, “Exposure of KS483 cells to estrogen enhances osteogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 394–405, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. A. Park, S. K. Ha, T. H. Kang et al., “Protective effect of apigenin on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 82, no. 25-26, pp. 1217–1223, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. R. Cummings, D. Bates, and D. M. Black, “Clinical use of bone densitometry: scientific review,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 15, pp. 1889–1897, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L. J. Gibson, “The mechanical behaviour of cancellous bone,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 317–328, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. C. Rice, S. C. Cowin, and J. A. Bowman, “On the dependence of the elasticity and strength of cancellous bone on apparent density,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 155–168, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. T. M. Keaveny, E. F. Morgan, G. L. Niebur, and O. C. Yeh, “Biomechanics of trabecular bone,” Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 307–333, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Z. Allende-Vigo, “The use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis,” Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 91–95, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus