Table 3: Remnant fecal pellets in the colon of loperamide-induced constipated rats after oral treatment of the test agents.

GroupsRemnant fecal pellets in the colon
NumbersMean thicknesses (μm)

Controls
 Vehicle3.80 ± 0.842.69 ± 0.80
 Loperamide7.00 ± 1.00a4.97 ± 0.13e
Single formula
  FRe 5 mg/kg4.40 ± 0.89c4.35 ± 0.40e
  FRe 10 mg/kg4.00 ± 0.71c3.94 ± 0.06eg
  Yoghurt3.80 ± 0.84c3.57 ± 0.36g
Mixed formula
  BFRe 0.05%2.40 ± 1.67bc3.32 ± 0.43g
  BFRe 0.1%1.60 ± 0.89ac2.87 ± 0.83g
  BFRe 1%1.20 ± 0.45ac2.18 ± 0.58g

Values are expressed as mean ± SD of five rats.
Yoghurt: Bulgaris, a brand of commercial yoghurt (Namyang, Korea).
FRe: fermented rice extracts.
BFRe: mixed formula consisting of yoghurt and the appropriate percentages (0.05, 0.1 and 1%) of FRe.
a and b compared with the vehicle control by the LSD test.
c compared with the loperamide control by the LSD test.
e compared with the vehicle control by the MW test.
g compared with the loperamide control by the MW test.