Table 5: Histomorphometry of the colon and remnant fecal pellets in loperamide-induced constipated rats after oral treatment of the test agents.

GroupsHistomorphometry (at sacrifice)
Fecal pellet surface mucous thicknesses (μm)Mucous-producing cell numbers (cells/mm2)Colon mucosa thicknesses (μm)

Controls
 Vehicle46.17 ± 5.02 673.80 ± 79.28 396.20 ± 63.85
 Loperamide15.01 ± 3.32a 150.80 ± 13.88e 224.76 ± 15.92e
Single formula
  FRe 5 mg/kg 22.40 ± 3.57a 298.20 ± 13.88eg 262.02 ± 17.97eg
  FRe 10 mg/kg 40.24 ± 8.35c 395.20 ± 90.76eg 306.61 ± 17.79eg
  Yoghurt 47.18 ± 4.42c 477.80 ± 32.51eg 309.61 ± 12.63eg
Mixed formula
  BFRe 0.05% 51.79 ± 6.90c 502.20 ± 49.00eg 344.76 ± 47.57g
  BFRe 0.1% 87.50 ± 7.09ac 551.80 ± 45.18fg 369.91 ± 33.32g
  BFRe 1%107.53 ± 7.32ac 597.80 ± 57.01g 404.69 ± 12.10g

Values are expressed as mean ± SD of five rats.
Yoghurt: Bulgaris, a brand of commercial yoghurt (Namyang, Korea).
FRe: fermented rice extracts.
BFRe: mixed formula consisting of yoghurt and the appropriate percentages (0.05, 0.1 and 1%) of FRe.
a compared with the vehicle control by the LSD test.
c compared with the loperamide control by the LSD test.
e and f compared with the vehicle control by the MW test.
g compared with the loperamide control by the MW test.