Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 957362, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/957362
Review Article

Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong

Received 8 November 2013; Revised 17 January 2014; Accepted 13 February 2014; Published 18 March 2014

Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho

Copyright © 2014 Beikang Ge et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Wardrop and D. Keeling, “The story of the discovery of heparin and warfarin,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 141, no. 6, pp. 757–763, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. D. Horton and B. M. Bushwick, “Warfarin therapy: evolving strategies in anticoagulation,” American Family Physician, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 635–646, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Wadelius, L. Y. Chen, K. Downes et al., “Common VKORC1 and GGCX polymorphisms associated with warfarin dose,” Pharmacogenomics Journal, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 262–270, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. L. T. Vieira and S. Huang, “Botanical-drug interactions: a scientific perspective,” Planta Medica, vol. 78, pp. 1400–1415, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. H. H. Tsai, H. W. Lin, Y. H. Lu, Y. L. Chen, and G. B. Mahady, “A review of potential harmful interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents and Chinese Herbal Medicines,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 5, Article ID e64255, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  6. K. J. Gohil and J. A. Patel, “Herb-drug interactions: a review and study based on assessment of clinical case reports in literature,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 129–139, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. A. Izzo, “Interactions between herbs and conventional drugs: overview of the clinical data,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 21, pp. 404–428, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Pal and A. K. Mitra, “MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-herbal interactions,” Life Sciences, vol. 78, no. 18, pp. 2131–2145, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. A. Izzo, “Herb-drug interactions: an overview of the clinical evidence,” Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. A. G. M. de Smet, “Clinical risk management of herb-drug interactions,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 258–267, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. A. Izzo, G. di Carlo, F. Borrelli, and E. Ernst, “Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. A. Patel and K. J. Gohil, “Warfarin-herb interactions: a review and study based on assessment of clinical case reports in literature,” Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 85–99, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. M. Friedman, C. D. Furberg, and D. L. deMets, Eds., Fundamentals of Clinical Trials, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 2010.
  14. A. M. Holbrook, J. A. Pereira, R. Labiris et al., “Systematic overview of warfarin and its drug and food interactions,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 165, no. 10, pp. 1095–1106, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. J. Beyth, L. M. Quinn, and C. S. Landefeld, “Prospective evaluation of an index for predicting the risk of major bleeding in outpatients treated with warfarin,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 91–99, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. S. Wells, A. M. Holbrook, N. R. Crowther, and J. Hirsh, “Interactions of warfarin with drugs and food,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 121, no. 9, pp. 676–683, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. A. O'Reilly, E. Nelson, and G. Levy, “Physicochemical and physiologic factors affecting the absorption of warfarin in man,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 435–437, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. A. Nutescu, N. L. Shapiro, S. Ibrahim, and P. West, “Warfarin and its interactions with foods, herbs and other dietary supplements,” Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 433–451, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Colalto, “Herbal interactions on absorption of drugs: mechanisms of action and clinical risk assessment,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 207–227, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. S. Kaminsky and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Human P450 metabolism of warfarin,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 67–74, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. J. Greenblatt and L. L. von Moltke, “Interaction of warfarin with drugs, natural substances, and foods,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 127–132, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Harder and P. Thürmann, “Clinically important drug interactions with anticoagulants: an update,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 416–444, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. M. Sellers, “Plasma protein displacement interactions are rarely of clinical significance,” Pharmacology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 225–227, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. M. Bone, “Potential interaction of Ginkgo biloba leaf with antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs: what is the evidence?” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 764–771, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Liao and B. Li, “Inhibition of shear-induced platelet aggregation by Chinese herbal medicines,” Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 315–318, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Bordia, “Effect of garlic on human platelet aggregation in vitro,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 355–360, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. F. Chung, M. Mccusker, C. P. Page, G. Dent, P. Guinot, and P. J. Barnes, “Effect of a ginkgolide mixture (BN 52063) in antagonising skin and platelet responses to platelet activating factor in man,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8527, pp. 248–251, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Josic, L. Hoffer, and A. Buchacher, “Preparation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, such as clotting factors II, VII, IX and X and clotting inhibitor Protein C,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 790, no. 1-2, pp. 183–197, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Rahimi, Z. Teymouri Zadeh, M. A. Karimi Torshizi, R. Omidbaigi, and H. Rokni, “Effect of the three herbal extracts on growth performance, immune system, blood factors and intestinal selected bacterial population in broiler chickens,” Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 527–539, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. L. Booth, J. A. Sadowski, J. L. Weihrauch, and G. Ferland, “Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) content of foods: a provisional table,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 109–120, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. W. Stafford, “The vitamin K cycle,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 1873–1878, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. C. Preusch and J. W. Suttie, “Lapachol inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase and vitamin K quinone reductase,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 234, no. 2, pp. 405–412, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. R. S. Hoult and M. Payá, “Pharmacological and biochemical actions of simple coumarins: natural products with therapeutic potential,” General Pharmacology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 713–722, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C.-S. Shi, H.-C. Huang, H.-L. Wu et al., “Salvianolic acid B modulates hemostasis properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cells,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 769–775, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C.-M. Teng, C.-M. Hsueh, Y.-L. Chang, F.-N. Ko, S.-S. Lee, and K. C.-S. Liu, “Antiplatelet effects of some aporphine and phenanthrene alkaloids in rabbits and man,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 706–711, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J.-P. Lambert and J. Cormier, “Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 509–512, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. M. Williamson and F. J. Evans, “Cannabinoids in clinical practice,” Drugs, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1303–1314, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Yamreudeewong, H. K. Wong, L. M. Brausch, and K. R. Pulley, “Probable interaction between warfarin and marijuana smoking,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 43, no. 7-8, pp. 1347–1353, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. M. Bland, R. L. Haining, T. S. Tracy, and P. S. Callery, “CYP2C-catalyzed delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolism: Kinetics, pharmacogenetics and interaction with phenytoin,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 1096–1103, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. Williamson, S. Driver, and K. Baxter, Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interactions, Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK, 1st edition, 2009.
  41. J. W. Budzinski, B. C. Foster, S. Vandenhoek, and J. T. Arnason, “An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures,” Phytomedicine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 273–282, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. W. Budzinski, B. C. Foster, S. Vandenhoek, and J. T. Arnason, “Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and its major constituents on human cytochrome P450 enzymes,” Life Sciences, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 856–861, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. P. Maliakal and S. Wanwimolruk, “Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1323–1329, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. Segal and L. Pilote, “Research warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 174, no. 9, pp. 1281–1282, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Thanou, J. C. Verhoef, and H. E. Junginger, “Oral drug absorption enhancement by chitosan and its derivatives,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 117–126, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S.-S. Huang, S.-H. Sung, and C.-E. Chiang, “Chitosan potentiation of warfarin effect,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1912–1914, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. A. Black, “Reduced effect of warfarin caused by ubidecarenone,” The Lancet, vol. 344, no. 8933, pp. 1372–1373, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. Landbo and T. P. Almdal, “Drug interaction between warfarin and coenzym Q10,” Ugeskrift for Laeger, vol. 160, no. 22, pp. 3226–3227, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Zhou and E. Chan, “Effect of ubidecarenone on warfarin anticoagulation and pharmacokinetics of warfarin enantiomers in rats,” Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 99–122, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. A. Mousa, “Antithrombotic effects of naturally derived products on coagulation and platelet function,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 663, pp. 229–240, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. J. Greenblatt, L. L. von Moltke, E. S. Perloff, Y. Luo, J. S. Harmatz, and M. A. Zinny, “Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 125–133, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Uesawa and K. Mohri, “Effects of cranberry juice on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in rats,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 1067–1072, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. J. Lilja, J. T. Backman, and P. J. Neuvonen, “Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam—probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 833–839, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. P. Griffiths, A. Beddall, and S. Pegler, “Fatal haemopericardium and gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to possible interaction of cranberry juice with warfarin,” Journal of The Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 324–326, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. P. Rindone and T. W. Murphy, “Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction resulting in profound hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding,” American Journal of Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 283–284, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. I. Mohammed Abdul, X. Jiang, K. M. Williams et al., “Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 154, no. 8, pp. 1691–1700, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. Isele, “Fatal bleeding under warfarin plus cranberry juice—could salicylic acid be the cause?” MMW-Fortschritte der Medizin, vol. 146, no. 11, p. 13, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Committee on Safety of Medicines/Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, “Interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice: new advice,” Current Problems, vol. 30, p. 10, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  59. G. McGregor, B. Fiebich, A. Wartenberg, S. Brien, G. Lewith, and T. Wegener, “Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens): an anti-inflammatory herb with therapeutic potential,” Phytochemistry Reviews, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Unger and A. Frank, “Simultaneous determination of the inhibitory potency of herbal extracts on the activity of six major cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and automated online extraction,” Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 18, no. 19, pp. 2273–2281, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. Shaw, C. Leon, S. Kolev, and V. Murray, “Traditional remedies and food supplements,” Drug Safety, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 342–356, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. B. H. Hellum and O. G. Nilsen, “The in vitro inhibitory potential of trade herbal products on human CYP2D6-mediated metabolism and the influence of ethanol,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 350–358, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. H. Hellum, Z. Hu, and O. G. Nilsen, “The induction of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 by six trade herbal products in cultured primary human hepatocytes,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 23–30, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. C. Gorski, S.-M. Huang, A. Pinto et al., “The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 89–100, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. B. J. Gurley, A. Swain, M. A. Hubbard et al., “Clinical assessment of CYP2D6-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans: effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, goldenseal, kava kava, St. John's wort, and Echinacea,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 755–763, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. I. M. Abdul, X. Jiang, K. M. Williams et al., “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of echinacea and policosanol with warfarin in healthy subjects,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 508–515, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Al-habori and A. Raman, “Antidiabetic and hypocholesterolaemic effects of Fenugreek,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 12, pp. 233–242, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  68. S. K. Banerjee and S. K. Maulik, “Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 1, article 1, pp. 1–14, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. C. Foster, M. S. Foster, S. Vandenhoek et al., “An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibition by garlic,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 176–184, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. Zou, M. R. Harkey, and G. L. Henderson, “Effects of herbal components on cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzyme catalytic activity,” Life Sciences, vol. 71, no. 13, pp. 1579–1589, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. H. Macan, R. Uykimpang, M. Alconcel et al., “Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 793–795, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. Shalansky, L. Lynd, K. Richardson, A. Ingaszewski, and C. Kerr, “Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1237–1247, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. Rahman and D. Billington, “Dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation in humans,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 11, pp. 2662–2665, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Steiner and W. Li, “Aged garlic extract, a modulator of cardiovascular risk factors: a dose-finding study on the effects of AGE on platelet functions,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 980–984, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. C. Gaudineau, R. Beckerman, S. Welbourn, and K. Auclair, “Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by multiple constituents of the Ginkgo biloba extract,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 318, no. 4, pp. 1072–1078, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. L. L. von Moltke, J. L. Weemhoff, E. Bedir et al., “Inhibition of human cytochromes P450 by components of Ginkgo biloba,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 1039–1044, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. T. Sugiyama, Y. Kubota, K. Shinozuka, S. Yamada, K. Yamada, and K. Umegaki, “Induction and recovery of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats treated with Ginkgo biloba extract,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 953–957, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. S. Etheridge, S. R. Black, P. R. Patel, J. So, and J. M. Mathews, “An in vitro evaluation of cytochrome P450 inhibition and P-glycoprotein interaction with goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng extracts and their constituents,” Planta Medica, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 731–741, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. T. Sugiyama, K. Sninozuka, A. Sano et al., “Effects of various Ginkgo biloba extracts and proanthocyanidin on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 953–957, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. B. H. Hellum and O. G. Nilsen, “In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by trade herbal products,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 466–475, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. Engelsen, J. D. Nielsen, and K. Winther, “Effect of coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in stable, long-term warfarin treated outpatients. A randomised, double blind, placebo-crossover trial variation in relative risk of venous thromboembolism in different cancers,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 1075–1076, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. X. Jiang, K. M. Williams, W. S. Liauw et al., “Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 425–432, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. K. Matthews, “Association of Ginkgo biloba with intracerebral hemorrhage,” Neurology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1933–1934, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. L. P. J. Vaes and P. A. Chyka, “Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1478–1482, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. B. H. Ali, G. Blunden, M. O. Tanira, and A. Nemmar, “Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 409–420, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. X. Jiang, K. M. Williams, W. S. Liauw et al., “Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 425–432, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Teng, J.-C. Lee, F.-N. Ko, S.-C. Chen, and T.-S. Wu, “Antiplatelet components in Panax ginseng,” Planta Medica, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 164–167, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. K. Janetzky and A. P. Morreale, “Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng,” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 692–693, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. F. Rosado, “Thrombosis of a prosthetic aortic valve disclosing a hazardous interaction between warfarin and a commercial ginseng product,” Cardiology, vol. 99, no. 2, p. 111, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. C.-S. Yuan, G. Wei, L. Dey et al., “Brief communication: American ginseng reduces warfarin's effect in healthy patients. A randomized, controlled trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 23–27, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. X. Jiang, K. M. Williams, W. S. Liauw et al., “Effect of St John’s wort and ginseng on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 592–599, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. Zhu, K. W. Chan, L. S. Ng, Q. Chang, S. Chang, and R. C. Li, “Possible influences of ginseng on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in rats,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. G. Bailey and G. K. Dresser, “Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs,” American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 281–297, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. H. Brandin, O. Myrberg, T. Rundlöf, A.-K. Arvidsson, and G. Brenning, “Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 565–570, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. L.-Q. Guo and Y. Yamazoe, “Inhibition of cytochrome P450 by furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice and herbal medicines,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 129–136, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. S. L. Booth, H. T. Madabushi, K. W. Davidson, and J. A. Sadowski, “Tea and coffee brews are not dietary sources of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone),” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 82–83, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. R. Taylor and V. M. Wilt, “Probable antagonism of warfarin by green tea,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 426–428, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. D. L. Parker, T. K. Hoffmann, M. A. Tucker, and D. J. Meier, “Interaction between warfarin and black tea,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 150–151, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. P. V. A. Babu and D. Liu, “Green tea catechins and cardiovascular health: an update,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 18, pp. 1840–1850, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. L. Pleşca-Manea, A. E. Pârvu, M. Pârvu, M. Taamasş, R. Buia, and M. Puia, “Effects of melilotus officinalis on acute inflammation,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, pp. 316–319, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  101. A. Chiffoleau, H. Huguenin, G. Veyrac et al., “Does melilot interact with acenocoumarol? (melilot-ruscus aculeatus),” Therapie, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 321–322, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. R. P. Hogan, “Hemorrhagic diathesis caused by drinking a herbal tea,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 249, no. 19, pp. 2679–2680, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. V. Jakovljevic, A. Raskovic, M. Popovic, and J. Sabo, “The effect of celery and parsley juices on pharmacodynamic activity of drugs involving cytochrome P450 in their metabolism,” European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 153–156, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. L. L. Bransgrove, “Interaction between warfarin and a vitamin K-containing nutritional supplement: a case report,” Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 85–89, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. H. Hong, C. S. Kim, and S. Maeng, “Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Nutrition Research and Practice, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 323–327, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  106. Q.-Y. Yue and K. Jansson, “Herbal drug curbicin and anticoagulant effect with and without warfarin: possibly related to the vitamin E component,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 6, p. 838, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. M. Heck, B. A. DeWitt, and A. L. Lukes, “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, vol. 57, no. 13, pp. 1221–1227, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. A. Friedman, S. A. Taylor, W. McDermott, and P. Alikhani, “Multifocal and recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage due to an herbal supplement containing natural coumarins,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 76–80, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. S. H. Yale and I. Glurich, “Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 433–439, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. B. J. Gurley, S. F. Gardner, M. A. Hubbard et al., “In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 428–440, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. P. Cheema, O. El-Mefty, and A. R. Jazieh, “Intraoperative haemorrhage associated with the use of extract of saw palmetto herb: a case report and review of literature,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 250, no. 2, pp. 167–169, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. B. J. Trock, H.-C. Leena, and R. Clarke, “Meta-analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 459–471, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. B. C. Foster, S. Vandenhoek, J. Hana et al., “In vitro inhibition of human cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of marker substrates by natural products,” Phytomedicine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 334–342, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. G. D. Anderson, G. Rosito, M. A. Mohustsy, and G. W. Elmer, “Drug interaction potential of soy extract and Panax ginseng,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 643–648, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. J. A. Cambria-Kiely, “Effect of soy milk on warfarin efficacy,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1893–1896, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. T. Kudo, “Warfarin antagonism of natto and increase in serum vitamin K by intake of natto,” Artery, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 189–201, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. L. J. Schurgers, M. J. Shearer, K. Hamulyák, E. Stöcklin, and C. Vermeer, “Effect of vitamin K intake on the stability of oral anticoagulant treatment: dose-response relationships in healthy subjects,” Blood, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 2682–2689, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. D. Pal and A. K. Mitra, “MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-herbal interactions,” Life Sciences, vol. 78, no. 18, pp. 2131–2145, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. B. J. Gurley, A. Swain, M. A. Hubbard et al., “Clinical assessment of CYP2D6-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans: effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, goldenseal, kava kava, St. John's wort, and Echinacea,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 755–763, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. B. J. Bray, N. B. Perry, D. B. Menkes, and R. J. Rosengren, “St. John's wort extract induces CYP3A and CYP2E1 in the Swiss webster mouse,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. Q. Y. Yue, C. Bergquist, and B. Gerdén, “Safety of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum),” The Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9203, pp. 576–577, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. O. Uygur Bayramiçli, M. N. Kalkay, E. Oskay Bozkaya et al., “St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) and warfarin: Dangerous liaisons!,” Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. X. P. Chen, W. Li, X. F. Xiao, L. L. Zhang, and C. X. Liu, “Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Radix Angelica sinensis,” Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 577–587, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  124. A. C. T. Lo, K. Chan, J. H. K. Yeung, and K. S. Woo, “Danggui (Angelica sinensis) affects the pharmacodynamics but not the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rabbits,” European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. L.-Q. Guo, M. Taniguchi, Q.-Y. Chen, K. Baba, and Y. Yamazoe, “Inhibitory potential of herbal medicines on human cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation: properties of Umbelliferous or Citrus crude drugs and their relative prescriptions,” Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 399–408, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. R. L. Page II and J. D. Lawrence, “Potentiation of warfarin by Dong Quai,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 870–876, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. G. R. Ellis and M. R. Stephens, “Minerva,” British Medical Journal, vol. 319, no. 7210, p. 650, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. L. Zhou, Z. Zuo, and M. S. S. Chow, “Danshen: an overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1345–1359, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. K. Chan, A. C. T. Lo, J. H. K. Yeung, and K. S. Woo, “The effects of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) on warfarin pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of warfarin enantiomers in rats,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 402–406, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. A. C. T. Lo, K. Chan, J. H. K. Yeung, and K. S. Woo, “The effects of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in rats,” European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 257–262, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-L. Lin, M.-J. Don, R.-M. Chen, and Y.-F. Ueng, “Induction of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase by extracts of the medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 521–527, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. Y.-F. Ueng, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-C. Peng et al., “Diterpene quinone tanshinone IIA selectively inhibits mouse and human cytochrome P4501A2,” Xenobiotica, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 603–613, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. M. B. Izzat, A. P. C. Yim, and M. H. El-Zufari, “A taste of chinese medicine!,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 941–942, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. L. S. Tam, T. Y. K. Chan, W. K. Leung, and J. A. J. H. Critchley, “Warfarin interactions with Chinese traditional medicines: danshen and methyl salicylate medicated oil,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, vol. 25, no. 3, p. 258, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. F. Qiu, G. Wang, Y. Zhao et al., “Effect of danshen extract on pharmacokinetics of theophylline in healthy volunteers,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 270–274, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Cai, and F. S. C. Lee, “Effect of tanshinone IIA on the noncovalent interaction between warfarin and Human serum albumin studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,” Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1568–1575, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. O. Potterat, “Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity,” Planta Medica, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 7–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. A. Y. Lam, G. W. Elmer, and M. A. Mohutsky, “Possible interaction between warfarin and Lycium barbarum L,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1199–1201, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. C. A. Rivera, C. L. Ferro, A. J. Bursua, and B. S. Gerben, “Probable interaction between Lycium barbarum (Goji) and warfarin,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. e50–e53, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  140. S. Akbar, “Andrographis paniculata: a review of pharmacological activities and clinical effects,” Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 66–77, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. K. Jarukamjorn, K. Don-in, C. Makejaruskul et al., “Impact of Andrographis paniculata crude extract on mouse hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 464–467, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. A. S. Hovhannisyan, H. Abrahamyan, E. S. Gabrielyan, and A. G. Panossian, “The effect of Kan Jang extract on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in rats,” Phytomedicine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 318–323, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. P. Thisoda, N. Rangkadilok, N. Pholphana, L. Worasuttayangkurn, S. Ruchirawat, and J. Satayavivad, “Inhibitory effect of Andrographis paniculata extract and its active diterpenoids on platelet aggregation,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 553, no. 1–3, pp. 39–45, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. H. Iwata, Y. Tezuka, S. Kadota, A. Hiratsuka, and T. Watabe, “Identification and characterization of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors in Schisandra fruit extract,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1351–1358, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. Y. Mu, J. Zhang, S. Zhang et al., “Traditional Chinese medicines Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis Baill) and Gan Cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) activate pregnane X receptor and increase warfarin clearance in rats,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 316, no. 3, pp. 1369–1377, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. H. Y. Hye, M. Lee, W. L. Min, Y. L. Sun, J. Shin, and D.-H. Kim, “Effects of Schisandra lignans on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux in human intestinal Caco-2 cells,” Planta Medica, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 444–450, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. M. C. Guerra, E. Speroni, M. Broccoli et al., “Comparison between Chinese medical herb Pueraria lobata crude extract and its main isoflavone puerarin: Antioxidant properties and effects on rat liver CYP-catalysed drug metabolism,” Life Sciences, vol. 67, no. 24, pp. 2997–3006, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. J. Zheng, B. Chen, B. Jiang et al., “The effects of puerarin on CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 activities in vivo,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 243–246, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. Q. Liu, Z. Lu, and L. Wang, “Restrictive effect of puerarin on myocardial infarct area in dogs and its possible mechanism,” Journal of Tongji Medical University, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 43–45, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. A. M. Heck, B. A. DeWitt, and A. L. Lukes, “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, vol. 57, no. 13, pp. 1221–1227, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. Y. G. Wang, J. M. Zhou, Z. C. Ma et al., “Pregnane X receptor mediated-transcription regulation of CYP3A by glycyrrhizin: a possible mechanism for its hepatoprotective property against lithocholic acid-induced injury,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 200, pp. 11–20, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  152. K. C. Srivastava, “Antiplatelet principles from a food spice clove (Syzgium aromaticum L),” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 363–372, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. S. A. Saeed and A. H. Gilani, “Antithrombotic activity of clove oil,” Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 112–115, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. H. Hussain, K. Krohn, V. U. Ahmad, G. A. Miana, and I. R. Green, “Lapachol: an overview,” Arkivoc, vol. 2007, no. 2, pp. 145–171, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. J. P. de la Cruz, M. Martín-Romero, J. A. Carmona, M. A. Villalobos, and F. Sánchez de la Cuesta, “Effect of evening primrose oil on platelet aggregation in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 141–149, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. J. Sahler, J. J. Bernard, S. L. Spinelli, N. Blumberg, and R. P. Phipps, “The Feverfew plant-derived compound, parthenolide enhances platelet production and attenuates platelet activation through NF-κB inhibition,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 426–434, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. B. H. Dam and J. Glavind, “Vitamin K in the plant,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 485–487, 1938. View at Google Scholar
  158. V. Franco, C. A. Polanczyk, N. Clausell, and L. E. Rohde, “Role of dietary vitamin K intake in chronic oral anticoagulation: prospective evidence from observational and randomized protocols,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 116, no. 10, pp. 651–656, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. S. L. Booth and M. A. Centurelli, “Vitamin K: a practical guide to the dietary management of patients on warfarin,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 288–296, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. D. J. Greenblatt, L. L. von Moltke, E. S. Perloff, Y. Luo, J. S. Harmatz, and M. A. Zinny, “Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 125–133, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. E. P. Lesho, L. Saullo, and S. Udvari-Nagy, “A 76-year-old woman with erratic anticoagulation,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. 651–656, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. L. P. J. Vaes and P. A. Chyka, “Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1478–1482, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. J. W. Budzinski, B. C. Foster, S. Vandenhoek, and J. T. Arnason, “Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and its major constituents on human cytochrome P450 enzymes,” Life Sciences, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 856–861, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. P. P. Maliakal and S. Wanwimolruk, “Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1323–1329, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. W. Yamreudeewong, H. K. Wong, L. M. Brausch, and K. R. Pulley, “Probable interaction between warfarin and marijuana smoking,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 43, no. 7-8, pp. 1347–1353, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. T. M. Bland, R. L. Haining, T. S. Tracy, and P. S. Callery, “CYP2C-catalyzed delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolism: kinetics, pharmacogenetics and interaction with phenytoin,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 1096–1103, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. B. C. Foster, M. S. Foster, S. Vandenhoek et al., “An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibition by garlic,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 176–184, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. M. J. Wargovich, “Diallyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfide are uniquely effective among organosulfur compounds in inhibiting CYP2E1 protein in animal models,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 832–834, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. M. Steiner and W. Li, “Aged garlic extract, a modulator of cardiovascular risk factors: a dose-finding study on the effects of AGE on platelet functions,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 980S–984S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. K. Janetzky and A. P. Morreale, “Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng,” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 692–693, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. J. C. Gorski, S.-M. Huang, A. Pinto et al., “The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 89–100, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus