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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 985174, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/985174
Research Article

Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract Involves Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 5

1Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology and Cell Signaling, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of Korea
2Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Debre Markos University, P.O. Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
3Laboratory of Veterinary Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of Korea
4Institute of Traditional Medicine & Bioscience, Daejeon University, Daejeon 300-716, Republic of Korea
5Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-422, Republic of Korea
6Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Chungbuk Health & Science University, Chungbuk 363-794, Republic of Korea
7Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan 619-953, Republic of Korea

Received 15 July 2014; Revised 13 November 2014; Accepted 20 November 2014; Published 24 December 2014

Academic Editor: Chong-Zhi Wang

Copyright © 2014 Eun Ju Im et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5), an inhibitor of Gα(q) and Gα(i) activation, has been reported to have antiatherosclerosis. Previous studies showed antiatherosclerotic effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGE) via multiple signaling pathways. However, potential protective effect of KRGE through RGS5 expression has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic effect of KRGE in vivo and in vitro and its role on RGS5 mRNA expression. Elevated levels of total cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and triglyceride (TG) in western diet groups of low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient LDLr−/− mice were reversed by oral administration of KRGE. KRGE suppressed transcriptional activity of tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and leptin in adipose tissue. It also potently repressed western diet-induced atheroma formation in aortic sinus. While KRGE showed reduced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, it enhanced mRNA expression of RGS5. Moreover, RGS5 siRNA transfection of microglia cells pretreated with KRGE reversed its inhibitory effect on the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1β mRNA. In conclusion, KRGE showed antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects in western diet fed LDLr−/− mice and this effect could partly be mediated by RGS5 expression.