Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

Table 1

Characteristic compounds of propolis from different geographic origins and respective plant source.

Geographic originPlant sourceTypical constituents (main components)References

Europe, North America, New Zealand, and temperate zones of AsiaPopulus spp., more predominantly P. nigra Pinocembrin, pinobanksin, chrysin, galangin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, and their esters[10, 20, 22]
Brazil
 Green propolisBaccharis spp., predominantly B. dracunculifolia Prenylated phenylpropanoids, phenolic acids, prenylated p-coumaric acids, acetophenones, diterpenic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, kaempferide, isosakuranetin, and kaempferol[9, 10, 32, 33]
 Red propolisDalbergia ecastaphyllum Formononetin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, medicarpin, and biochanin A[32, 34, 35]
RussiaBetula spp., more specifically B. verrucosa, B. pendula, and B. pubescens Cinnamic acids, phenylpropanoid sesquiterpenols, acacetin, apigenin, ermanin, rhamnocitrin, kaempferide, α-acetoxybetulenol[10, 180]
Cuba, VenezuelaClusia spp., more specifically C. rosea and C. minor Polyisoprenylated benzophenones, more specifically nemorosone, xanthochymol, and guttiferone E[9, 36]
Mediterranean
 GreeceProbably Conifer spp.Flavonoids, diterpenic acids such as isocupressic, pimaric, and communic acids, isoagatholal, agathadiol, ferruginol, 8-elemene, and totarol[24, 25]
 SwitzerlandP. tremula Benzyl p-coumarate, benzyl ferulate, and phenolic glycerides like dicoumaroyl acetyl glycerol, diferuloyl acetyl glycerol, feruloyl coumaroyl acetyl glycerol, and caffeoyl coumaroyl acetyl glycerol[26]
 MaltaFerula spp., most probably Ferula communis Diterpenic acids such as isocupressic, communic, pimaric, and imbricatoloic acid, together with totarol and 13-epitorulosal[27]
 TurkeyPopulus spp., Eucalyptus spp.,  and Castanea sativa Pinocembrin, pinobanksin and its acetate, prenyl esters of caffeic acid, ferulic acids, diterpenic acids like pimaric, isopimaric, abietic, dihydroabietic acids, cinnamyl cinnamate, and ethyl oleate, aromatic acid esters such as benzyl cinnamate, benzenedicarboxylic acid and flavanols such as benzopyran and chrysin[2830]
 AlgeriaPopulus spp.
Cistus spp.
Pinocembrin, pinobanksin and its acetate, chrysin, apigenin, pectolinarigenin, pilosin, ladanein, galangin, naringenin, tectochrysin, methoxychrysin, prenyl esters of caffeic acids, ferulic acids, diterpenic acids like hydroxyditerpenic acid, labdane, and clerodane[28, 31]
Australia
Apis mellifera Acacia paradoxa Xanthorrhoeol, pterostilbene, sakuranetin, pinostrobin, stilbenes, prenylated tetrahydroxystilbenes, prenylated cinnamic acids, flavanones, flavonols, chalcones[3942, 181]
 Stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria C. torelliana trees  (fruit resins)
Africa
 NigeriaProbably M. schweinfurthii Isoflavonoids, prenylated isoflavonoids, and stilbenoids[54]
 KenyaTriterpenes, arylnaphtalene lignans such as tetrahydrojusticidin B and 6-methoxydiphyllin, geranyl stilbenes, and geranylflavon macarangin[50]
 Cameroon
  Congo
Triterpenes, derivatives of amyrin and lupeol and diprenyl flavonoids[53]
 OmanAzadirachta indica, Acacia spp.,  and Mangifera indica Triterpenes, prenylated flavanones such as 7-O-methyl-8-prenylnaringenin, 3′,8-diprenylnaringenin, and 8-prenyl-5,7-dihydroxy-3′-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-4′-methoxyflavanone, chalcones, cardanol, cardols, and anacardic acids[51]
 EthiopiaProbably Acacia spp. Triterpenoids such as α- and β-amyrins, α- and β-amyryl acetates, lupeol, and α- and β-lupeyl acetates[52]
ThailandStyrax treesPhenylallylflavanone, (E)-cinnamyl-(E)-cinnamylidenate[48]
The Pacific region
 Okinawa, Hawaii, and TaiwanMacaranga tanarius Prenylflavonoids, more specifically isonymphaeol-B, nymphaeol-A, nymphaeol-B, nymphaeol-C, propolins, 3′-geranyl-naringenin[4345]
 Indonesia, MyanmarMangifera indica Alk(en)ylresorcinols, cycloartane-type triterpenes, cycloartanes, and prenylated flavanones[46, 47]
Canary IslandsUnknown Furofuran lignans[49, 182]

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