Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

Table 2

Antioxidant activity of propolis and its chemical constituents.

OriginPropolis type/plant sourceType of extract/isolated compound(s)Species/cellsEffectReferences

Portugal (Serra de Bornes and Fundão)European propolis/Populus nigra Methanolic extractHuman erythrocytesDecrease in lipid peroxidation[64];
Free radical scavenging[62]

BrazilPropolis from the stingless bee Melipona orbignyi/probablypoplar treePEE Human erythrocytesFree radical scavenging; inhibition of hemolysis and lipid peroxidation[183]

Portugal (Central Algarve)European propolis/Populus nigra PEE, PWE, and methanolic extractsFree radicals scavenging, chelation of metal ions[63]

CubaRed propolis/C. rosea Methanolic extract NemorosoneFree radicals scavenging[36]

SloveniaEuropean propolis/Populus nigra PEEStrong reducing power and ability to scavenge free radicals and metal ions[184]

RomaniaEuropean propolis/Populus nigra PEEFemale Swiss mice (UVB exposure)Decrease in malondialdehyde levels, restoration of glutathione peroxidase activity[83]

Kangaroo IslandAustralian propolis/Acacia paradoxa Ethyl acetate extract; stilbenesFree radical scavenging[39]

ChinaEuropean propolis/Populus nigra Ethyl acetate extractFree radical scavenging and ferric reducing activity[81]

AlgeriaMediterranean propolis/Populus spp. and Cistus spp. Methanolic extractFree radical scavenging and ferric reducing activity[31]

UruguayEuropean and green propolis/Populus nigra and B. dracunculifolia PEEBovine aortic endothelial cellsInhibition of low-density lipoprotein peroxidation and NADPH oxidase and increase in nitric oxide synthase[82]

BrazilGreen propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEEC57BL/6 mice (acute lung inflammation caused by cigarette smoke)Normalization of nitrite, myeloperoxidase levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity and reduction of glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and malondialdehyde levels[185]

TurkeyMediterranean propolis/Populus spp., Eucalyptus spp., and Castanea sativa PEEFibroblast cellsDecrease of DNA damage induced by H2O2[186]
Male Wistar ratsDecrease in CAT activity and MDA levels in NOS inhibited rats[84]
Carps (Cyprinus carpio)Decrease in malondialdehyde levels, superoxide dismutase activity and increase of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity[187]

Purchased from Sigma Aldrich Co.Characteristic of European type propolisCAPEFree radical scavenging, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity and lipid peroxidation[85]
Male Wistar albino ratsMaintenance of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease of xanthine oxidase activity and malondialdehyde and nitric oxidase levels[86]
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cyclistsReduction of hyperthermia-induced survival inhibition, necrosis, superoxide production, glutathione depletion, and intracellular superoxide[87]

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