Review Article

Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

Table 3

Anti-inflammatory mechanisms investigated with propolis.

OriginPropolis type/plant sourceType of extract/isolated compound(s)Species/cellsEffectReferences

Purchased: Sigma Aldrich Co.
Characteristic of European, Brazilian, and Mediterranean propolisCaffeic acid, quercetin, naringenin;
Peritoneal macrophagesSuppression of lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism
CAPE being the most potent modulator of the arachidonic acid cascade

CroatiaEuropean propolis/Populus nigra Water-soluble derivativesSwiss albino miceReduction of DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes[188]
PEE Male Swiss albino miceSuppression of functional activity of macrophages[104]

Purchased: Sigma Aldrich Co.J774 macrophages, Male Wistar ratsIn vitro and in vivo inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 activity[91, 189];
Male Wistar albino ratsDecrease of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte infiltration in the lungs tissues[190];
Characteristic of European type propolisCAPEGastric epithelial cell line (AGS), H. pylori (strain NCTC 11638)Inhibition of H. pylori-induced NF-kB and activator protein 1-DNA-binding activity; prevention of IkBα degradation in AGS; and suppression of TNF-α and interleukin 8 production[191];
Purchased: Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.RAW264.7 macrophagesDecrease of the production of interleukin-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and the production and expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)[98];
Male Swiss inbred strain miceDecrease of cyclooxygenase 2 expression, NF-κB activity, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK), and inhibitor of NF-κB (IkB) phosphorylation[97]

BrazilGreen propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEERAW264.7 macrophagesDownregulation of NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase [101]
Purchased: Acros OrganicsCharacteristic of European, Brazilian, and Mediterranean propolisCaffeic acid

BrazilGreen propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEESprague-Dawley rats Inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat hind paws edema and the chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)[95]

SynthesizedCharacteristic of European type propolisCAPEPolymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from Human bloodInhibition of 5-lipoxygenase activity and arachidonic acid release[103]

ChileEuropean propolis/poplar treesPEEMale CF-1 miceInhibition of NO release by the macrophages[102]

ChinaEuropean propolis/Populus nigra PEE and PWE Male ICR mice and male Wistar ratsInhibition of the activation and differentiation of mononuclear macrophages; decrease prostaglandin-E2 (PGE 2) and nitric oxide (NO) levels[61]

BrazilGreen propolis/B. dracunculifolia PWESwiss and BALB/c miceDecrease in the number of macrophages and neutrophils; inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines[99]
Red propolis/Dalbergia ecastaphyllum PEEMale Wistar ratsDecrease in renal macrophage infiltration in rats with chronic kidney disease[100]

NepalNepalese propolis/probably Shorea robusta, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia catechu, and Bombax cieba PEE, 3′,4′-dihydroxy-4-methoxydalbergione, 4-ethoxydalbergion, cearoin, and chrysin Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) from C57BL/6 miceInhibiting IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-13 gene expression in BMMC and also inhibiting the activation of IKK leading to NF-κB inactivation[96]