Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 7

Review Article

Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

Table 7

Antifungal activity of propolis and its chemical constituents.

OriginPropolis type/plant sourceType of extract/isolated compound(s)Species/cellsEffect/stimulusReferences

BrazilGreen propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEEC. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. guilliermondii; adult volunteer patients showing symptoms of stomatitisInhibition of cell growth, C. albicans being the most sensitive and C. guilliermondii the most resistant; reduction of the number of Candida yeasts in the saliva[141]
Green propolis/B. dracunculifolia; red propolis/D. ecastaphyllum PEET. rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes, and T. mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533) (control)Both samples which decrease cell growth, red PEE being more efficient than the green one[143]
Green propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEE, PWE, matricial microparticles, and soluble dry extractC. albicans strains SC5314 (wild type), CAI4, and 3153A (wild type), female BALB/c micePEE being the most potent in inhibiting cell growth followed by propolis soluble dry extract, propolis matricial microparticles, and PWE
Different gel formulations of propolis: propolis based Carbopol 940 gel (CP1%), propolis based poloxamer 407 gel with Carbopol 940 (PP1%), propolis alginate with pectin (AlP1%), and propolis based chitosan gel with Natrosol (ChP1%); CP1% and chitosan gels being the most pseudoplastic ones; propolis based gels presenting antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream
Green propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEE, gels, and cream obtained from the extractC. albicans strains used were SC5314, CAI4, BWP17, DAY286, 3153A, and 529L (wild type), female BALB/c mice (murine model of vulvovaginal candidiasis)Induction of cell death in C. albicans mediated via metacaspase and RAS pathway
Inhibition of all three C. albicans morphogenetic types, several mutants in genes involved either in the morphological transitions or in the maintenance of a specific morphotype which are more sensitive to propolis
Propolis based gels and cream which were partially able to control vulvovaginal candidiasis
Green propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEEC. albicans (ATCC 90028), 29 C. albicans isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasisInhibiting biofilm formation by C. albicans from vulvovaginal candidiasis[149]
Red propolis/D. ecastaphyllum n-Hexane extract5 C. parapsilosis (RL01, RL07, RL11, RL13, and RL27), 5 C. glabrata (RL03, RL09, RL12, RL34, and RL37), C. tropicalis 72A, and C. krusei (ATCC 6258)Active against fluconazole resistant Candida spp. [148]

FranceEuropean propolis/Populus nigra PEE, PWE, methanolic extract, and dichloromethane extractC. albicans (ATCC 66396), C. glabrata (LMA 90–1085), and A. fumigates (CBS 11326)Antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata but only having a weak activity towards A. fumigates [133]

BrazilGreen propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEEP. brasiliensis, peritoneal macrophages obtained from male BALB/c miceIncrease of fungicidal activity of macrophages against P. brasiliensis [142]
BulgariaMediterranean propolis/Populus spp.

Czech RepublicEuropean propolis/Populus nigra Dimethyl sulfoxide extractC. albicans,   A. fumigatus, M. gypseum, and M. canis Affecting the growth of the tested bacteria in different ways by different concentrations[201]

Portugal (Bragança and Leiria)European propolis/Populus nigra PEEC. albicans, T. rubrum, and A. fumigatus Plant extracts not exhibiting relevant antifungal activity, but in general both propolis samples affecting the fungal growth[140]

PolandEuropean propolis/Populus nigra and some species of Betula alba, Alnus glutinosa, Aesculus hippocastanum, and Fagus sylvatica PEE20 isolated C. albicans, 14 isolated C. glabrata, and 10 C. krusei Inhibition of fungal growth[147]

IranEuropean propolis/Poplar spp., Ferula ovina PEEC. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. kefyr, C. krusei, M. globosa, M. slooffiae, and M. pachydermatis, all obtained from patients with clinical features of onychomycosisDecrease of Candida and Malassezia strains growth, isolated from onychomycosis, even in the fluconazole-resistant strains[205]

BrazilGreen propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEE and propolis microparticles89 yeast strains from vaginal exudates of the vulvovaginal candidiasis patients: 58 C. albicans and 17 C. glabrata, 1 C. tropicalis, 8 C. guilliermondii, and 5 C. parapsilosis Inhibition of all yeasts growth by ethanol extract and propolis microparticles, with small variation, independent of the species of yeast[144]
ArgentinaTropical region propolis/Salix humboldtiana, Pinus spp., Eucalyptus spp., and Populus spp. PEEXylophagous (G. applanatum, L. elegans, P. sanguineus, and S. commune) and phytopathogenic (A. niger,Fusarium sp., Macrophomina sp., P. notatum, and Rhodotorula spp.)Inhibition of fungal growth[146]
Spain (Basque Country)European propolis/Populus nigra PEE and propylene glycol extractsC. albicans (CECT 1394), S. cerevisiae (CECT 1383)Inhibition of fungal growth[145]

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