Table 4: Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for the effects of mindfulness meditation on College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI) and computer cognitive tasks ().

VariableLeast squares mean (95% confidence interval) statistic (df) value
InterventionControl

College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI)

Full scale score130.2 (128.5, 131.8)127.2 (125.4, 129.0)5.320 (1, 276)0.022
(1) Emotional satisfaction score17.6 (17.2, 18.0)17.8 (17.3, 18.2)0.227 (1, 276)0.635
(2) Management score13.7 (13.4, 14.0) 13.4 (13.0, 13.7)1.753 (1, 276)0.187
(3) Achievement17.1 (16.8, 17.5)17.1 (16.7, 17.5)0.002 (1, 276)0.964
(4) Stress16.9 (16.6, 17.2)16.9 (16.5, 17.2)0.015 (1, 276)0.904
(5) Attention to study16.4 (16.0, 16.7)16.5 (16.2, 16.9)0.230 (1, 276)0.632
(6) Class communication12.0 (11.8, 12.3)12.4 (12.1, 12.6)2.717 (1, 276)0.100
(7) Confidence10.6 (10.4, 10.9)10.9 (10.6, 11.2)1.473 (1, 276)0.226
(8) Involvement with college activity12.8 (12.5, 13.1)13.0 (12.7, 13.3)0.742 (1, 276)0.390
(9) Friendship10.5 (10.2, 10.8)10.9 (10.6, 11.2)3.380 (1, 276)0.067

Computer cognitive task

(1) Digit vigilance task
 Accuracy (%)86.2 (83.7, 88.7)81.9 (78.5, 85.2)3.982 (1, 172)0.048
 Reaction time (msec)30.6 (29.4, 31.7)33.4 (31.9, 35.0)8.589 (1, 172)0.004
(2) Choice reaction time
 Accuracy (%)75.2 (72.1, 78.3)67.6 (63.5, 71.6)8.308 (1, 172)0.004
 Reaction time (msec)38.1 (36.7, 39.5)38.9 (37.0, 40.8)0.427 (1, 172)0.514
(3) Spatial working memory
 Accuracy (%)84.5 (82.8, 86.3)81.4 (79.0, 83.8)4.210 (1, 172)0.042
 Reaction time (msec)20.9 (19.8, 22.0)22.0 (20.5, 23.4)1.205 (1, 172)0.274
(4) Memory scanning task
 Accuracy (%)84.6 (82.5, 86.7)82.3 (79.5, 85.1)1.598 (1, 167)0.208
 Reaction time (msec)32.0 (31.0, 33.0)32.8 (31.5, 34.1)0.974 (1, 167)0.325

Means were posttest scores adjusted for pretest scores, sex, college, and experience with mindfulness meditation.
msec: millisecond.