Table 11: Yoga in ASD.

Author Year Type and duration of study Sample size Type of intervention ComparatorsDose Outcome measureFindings Comments

Rosenblatt et al. [86]2011Open label  
Duration 8 weeks
(M 22; F 2)  
Drop-out (initially enrolled 33)  
Age: 3–18 years
Yoga (plus dance plus music)None 45 min for 8 sessionsBASC, ABCImprovement, but no change in ABCOpen label design  
Few baseline characteristics of study participants  
High drop-out rate

Koenig et al. [87]2012Open label pretest-posttest control group design  
Duration 16 weeks
(M 37; F 9)  
Drop-out (originally recruited )  
Age: 5–12 years
Yoga  
School normal activities 15–20 min/dayABC, VinelandImprovement with moderate effect size in the experimental groupOpen label design  
Statistical analysis not optimal  
Blinding not reported  
No placebo group

Chan et al. [88]2013Randomized, parallel group  
Duration 4 weeks
(gender not reported for the all sample)  
Age: 6–17 years
Mind-body exercise (Nei Yang Gong)  

Drop-out
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Drop-out
Twice per weekTower of London Test, CCTT, Five Point Test, ATEC, event-related EEG assessmentSignificant improvement in the experimental group in self-controlBlinding not reported  
No placebo condition  
Only per protocol analysis

ABC, Aberrant Behavioral Checklist; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; ATEC, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist; BASC, Behavioral Assessment System for Children; CCTT, Children’s Color Trails Test.