Table 6: Auditory Integration Training in ASD.

Author Year Type and duration of study Sample size Type of intervention ComparatorsDose Outcome measureFindings Comments

Bettison [66]1996Randomized, single blind, parallel group, placebo controlled  
Duration: 12 months
(M 66; F 14)  
Age: 3–17 years
AIT according to Berard,  
Music unmodified  
Two 30 min sessions for 10 consecutive daysABC, DBC, SSQ, SP (baseline, 1–3–6–12 months after intervention)No differences between treatment and control groupOnly blinding of outcome assessors  
Statistical analysis not optimal

Edelson et al. [67]1999Randomized, single blind, parallel group, placebo controlled  
Duration: 3 months
(M 17; F 2)  
Age: 4–39 years
AIT according to Berard,  
Music unmodified  
Two 30 min sessions for 10 consecutive daysABCa, CRS, FAPC, auditory processing tests (SCAN and SSW), electrophysiological recordings (P300 ERP)  
(baseline, 1-2-3 months after)
Statistical significant difference in ABCa at 3 months Only blinding of outcome assessors  
Statistical analysis not optimal  
Small sample size

Mudford et al. [68]2000Randomized, single blind, crossover  
Duration: 14 months
(M 17; F 4)  
Drop-out
Age: 5.75–13.92 years
AIT according to BerardSimilar but with nonfunctional headphones and unmodified music Two 30 min sessions for 10 consecutive daysABCa (baseline and every month after), direct observation of behavior (baseline and every month after), Vineland, Reynell Language Developmental Scales-III, Leiter (baseline and month 14) No significant difference between the two groupsSmall sample size  
High drop-out rate (low compliance)  
Per-protocol analysis, no intention to treat

Rimland and Edelson [69]1995Randomized, single blind, parallel group  
Duration: 3 months
(M 12; F 6)  
Drop-out
Age: 4–21 years
AIT according to Berard, Music unmodified,  
Two 30 min sessions for 10 consecutive daysABCa, FAPC, HSQ  
(baseline, 2 weeks, and 1-2-3 months after)
Significant improvement in ABCa and FAPC for the experimental groupSignificant difference at baseline from patients in the AIT and control group  
Small sample size  
Experimenter not blinded (while parents and assessors of outcome were blinded)

Veale [70]1993Randomized, single blind, parallel group  
Duration: 3 months

Age: approximately 6–10 years
AIT according to the Clark methodMusic unmodifiedTwo 30 min sessions for 10 consecutive daysABCa, CRS, FAPCSignificant improvement in ABCa in the experimental groupInvestigator not blinded  
Insufficient data on baseline characteristics of patients  
Small sample size

Zollweg et al. [71]1997Randomized, double blind, parallel group  
Duration: 9 months

Age: 7–24 years  
Diagnosis of ASD only in 9 patients
AITMusic unmodifiedTwo 30 min sessions for 10 consecutive daysABCaNo differences between treatment and control groupNot specific for ASD  
Statistical analysis carried out on different sample size (28 for ABCa, 22 for loudness discomfort, 14 for pure tone threshold)

ABC, Autism Behavior Checklist; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; CRS, Conners’ Rating Scales; DBC, Developmental Behavior Checklist; FAPC, Fisher’s Auditory Problems Checklist; HSQ, Hearing Sensitivity Questionnaire; SCAN, Screening Test for Auditory Processing Disorders; SP, Sensory Problem; SSQ, Sound Sensitivity Questionnaire; SSW, Staggered Spondaic Word Test.