Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Fig 3

Research Article

Rhein Elicits In Vitro Cytotoxicity in Primary Human Liver HL-7702 Cells by Inducing Apoptosis through Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway

Figure 3

Rhein ravaged the integrity of cell membrane and induced cell morphological changes. (a) Lactate dehydrogenase assay was used to evaluate the extent of rhein cytotoxicity. The method was based in measuring LDH leakage in the culture medium after rhein treatment with various concentrations (10 μM–400 μM) during 24 h and 48 h. Values given are the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. ( versus control and versus control). (b) HL-7702 cells were stained with Hoechst 33258 and examined under fluorescent microscope (mag. 400x). Nuclei chromatin margination and condensation were shown by arrows. (c) HL-7702 cells were incubated with a wide range of doses of rhein for 12 h and then processed for AST and ALT colorimetric assay. Analysis of AST and ALT elevation was made relative to untreated control cells (100%). Data are expressed as mean ± SD from three independent experiments. ( versus control and versus control).
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