Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 375837, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/375837
Research Article

Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A2A Receptors

1Biotropics Malaysia Berhad, Lot 21 Jalan U1/19, Section U1, Hicom-Glenmarie Industrial Park, 40150 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
2Ethix Pharma Laboratories, Karbala Road, Bilaspur 495001, Chhattisgarh, India

Received 26 June 2015; Revised 26 September 2015; Accepted 27 September 2015

Academic Editor: Gerald Munch

Copyright © 2015 Annie George et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. I. Burkill, A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 2, Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1966.
  2. W. E. Wan Hassan and M. Mustaffa, Healing Herbs of Malaysia, Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA), 2006.
  3. I. B. Jaganath and L. T. Ng, The Green Pharmacy of Malaysia, Vinpress Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2000.
  4. S. Awale, Y. Tezuka, A. H. Banskota, and S. Kadota, “Siphonols A–E: novel nitric oxide inhibitors from Orthosiphon stamineus of Indonesia,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. I. Abdelwahab, S. Mohan, M. M. Elhassan et al., “Antiapoptotic and antioxidant properties of Orthosiphon stamineus benth (Cat's Whiskers): intervention in the Bcl-2-mediated apoptotic pathway,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 156765, 10 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. A. Akowuah, I. Zhari, I. Norhayati, A. Sadikun, and S. M. Khamsah, “Sinensetin, eupatorin, 3′-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4′-tetramethoxyflavone and rosmarinic acid contents and antioxidative effect of Orthosiphon stamineus from Malaysia,” Food Chemistry, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 559–566, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C.-H. Ho, I. Noryati, S.-F. Sulaiman, and A. Rosma, “In vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. extracts against food-borne bacteria,” Food Chemistry, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 1168–1172, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. J. Han, A. H. Hussin, and S. Ismail, “Effect of methanol leaf extract of Orthosiphon stamineus benth. on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats,” Journal of Biosciences, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 21–23, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  9. O. M. Arafat, S. Y. Tham, A. Sadikun, I. Zhari, P. J. Haughton, and M. Z. Asmawi, “Studies on diuretic and hypouricemic effects of Orthosiphon stamineus methanol extracts in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 354–360, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Ohashi, T. Bohgaki, and H. Shibuya, “Antihypertensive substance in the leaves of kumis kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) in Java island,” Yakugaku Zasshi, vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 474–482, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Sriplang, S. Adisakwattana, A. Rungsipipat, and S. Yibchok-Anun, “Effects of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous extract on plasma glucose concentration and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 510–514, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. E. Malterud, I. M. Hanche-Olsen, and I. Smith-Kielland, “Flavonoids from Orthosiphon spicatus,” Planta Medica, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 569–570, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. Sumaryono, P. Proksch, V. Wray, L. Witte, and T. Hartmann, “Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the phenolic constituents from Orthosiphon aristatus,” Planta Medica, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 176–180, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Masuda, K. Masuda, and N. Nakatani, “Orthosiphol A, a highly oxygenated diterpene from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 945–946, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N.-K. Olah, L. Radu, C. Mogoşan, D. Hanganu, and S. Gocan, “Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) hydroalcoholic extracts,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 117–123, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. A. Hossain and Z. Ismail, “Isolation and characterization of triterpenes from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 295–298, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. D. Yuliana, A. Khatib, A. M. R. Link-Struensee et al., “Adenosine A1 receptor binding activity of methoxy flavonoids from Orthosiphon stamineus,” Planta Medica, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 132–136, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. B. Fredholm, K. Bättig, J. Holmén, A. Nehlig, and E. E. Zvartau, “Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 83–133, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J.-F. Chen, P. K. Sonsalla, F. Pedata et al., “Adenosine A2A receptors and brain injury: broad spectrum of neuroprotection, multifaceted actions and ‘fine tuning’ modulation,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 310–331, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. D. Prediger, L. C. Batista, and R. N. Takahashi, “Caffeine reverses age-related deficits in olfactory discrimination and social recognition memory in rats. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 957–964, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. R. N. Takahashi, F. A. Pamplona, and R. D. Prediger, “Adenosine receptor antagonists for cognitive dysfunction: a review of animal studies,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 1, no. 13, pp. 2614–2632, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  22. G. S. Pereira, T. Mello e Souza, E. R. C. Vinadé et al., “Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors in the posterior cingulate cortex facilitates memory in rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 437, no. 3, pp. 151–154, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. V. Gomes, M. P. Kaster, A. R. Tomé, P. M. Agostinho, and R. A. Cunha, “Adenosine receptors and brain diseases: neuroprotection and neurodegeneration,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1808, no. 5, pp. 1380–1399, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. H. Thor and W. R. Holloway, “Social memory of the male laboratory rat,” Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 1000–1006, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. W. Stackman, F. Eckenstein, B. Frei, D. Kulhanek, J. Nowlin, and J. F. Quinn, “Prevention of age-related spatial memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by chronic Ginkgo biloba treatment,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 510–520, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Walesiuk, E. Trofimiuk, and J. J. Braszko, “Ginkgo biloba extract diminishes stress-induced memory deficits in rats,” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 176–187, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. George, C. P. Ng, M. O'Callaghan, G. S. Jensen, and H. J. Wong, “In vitro and ex-vivo cellular antioxidant protection and cognitive enhancing effects of an extract of Polygonum minus Huds (Lineminus) demonstrated in a Barnes Maze animal model for memory and learning,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, article 161, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. I. K. Adyana, S. Finna, and I. Muhammad, “From the ethnopharmacology to clinical study of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 66–73, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  29. K. Varani, S. Gessi, A. Dalpiaz, and P. A. Borea, “Pharmacological and biochemical characterization of purified A2a adenosine receptors in human platelet membranes by [3H]-CGS 21680 binding,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 117, no. 8, pp. 1693–1701, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. M. Poucher, J. R. Keddie, P. Singh, P. W. R. Caulkett, G. Jones, and M. G. Collis, “The in vitro pharmacology of ZM 241385, a potent, non-xanthine, A2a selective adenosine receptor antagonist,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 1096–1102, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. A. Taylor, S. Wiese, E. P. Faison, and G. G. Yarbrough, “Pharmacological characterization of purinergic receptors in the rat vas deferens,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 224, no. 1, pp. 40–45, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. Sylvia, J. Stemmelin, B. Will, Y. Christen, and G. Di Scala, “Facilitative effects of egb 761 on olfactory recognition in young and aged rats,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 321–326, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Mondadori, H.-J. Moebius, and M. Zingg, “CGP 36 742, an orally active GABAB receptor antagonist, facilitates memory in a social recognition test in rats,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 77, no. 1-2, pp. 227–229, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. E. M. Angelucci, C. Cesário, R. H. Hiroi, P. L. Rosalen, and C. Da Cunha, “Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1201–1208, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. D. L. Ruiz, Y. H. Lim, and J. Zheng, “Adenosine A2A receptor as a drug discovery target,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3623–3650, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. I. Uriarte-Pueyo and M. I. Calvo, “Flavonoids as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 34, pp. 5289–5302, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Blokland, “Acetylcholine: a neurotransmitter for learning and memory? A review,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 21, pp. 285–300, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  38. S. O. Cho, J. Y. Ban, J. Y. Kim et al., “Anti-ischemic activities of aralia cordata and its active component, oleanolic acid,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 923–932, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. Wilkinson, J. D. Boyd, M. Glicksman, K. J. Moore, and J. El Khoury, “A high content drug screen identifies ursolic acid as an inhibitor of amyloid beta protein interactions with its receptor CD36,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 286, no. 40, pp. 34914–34922, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. G. Hadfield, “Caffeine and the olfactory bulb,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. D. S. Prediger, L. C. Batista, E. Miyoshi, and R. N. Takahashi, “Facilitation of short-term social memory by ethanol in rats is mediated by dopaminergic receptors,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 149–157, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K.-Y. Yoo and S.-Y. Park, “Terpenoids as potential anti-alzheimer's disease therapeutics,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 3524–3538, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus