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Figure 6: Administration of ATRES extract increased the mRNA expression of IGF-1 on the dorsal skin area. Total RNA was isolated from the dorsal skin area of the mice treated with 40% ethanol (negative control), MXD (3%, w/v, positive control), the n-butanol (3%, w/v) extract, the DW (3%, w/v) extract, and the n-butanol-n4 fraction (3%, w/v). Total RNA was isolated from HaCaT cells treated with 40% ethanol (negative control) and ethanol extract. The relative levels of expression of IGF-1 ((a), (d)), KGF (b), and VEGF (c), normalized to beta actin, were determined by qRT-PCR. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and the Student-Newman-Keuls test was then conducted. The data are presented as the means ± SD (). indicates a statistically significant difference compared with the control group ().