Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 451319, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/451319
Research Article

Herb Network Analysis for a Famous TCM Doctor's Prescriptions on Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

1Yijishan Hospital, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241001, China
2MOE Key Lab of Bioinformatics, Bioinformatics Division, TNLIST, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Received 28 October 2014; Revised 20 January 2015; Accepted 20 January 2015

Academic Editor: Jairo K. Bastos

Copyright © 2015 Yan Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. G. Zhang, W. Lee, B. Bausell, L. Lao, B. Handwerger, and B. Berman, “Variability in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) diagnoses and herbal prescriptions provided by three TCM practitioners for 40 patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 415–421, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. G. Zhang, B. Singh, W. Lee, B. Handwerger, L. Lao, and B. Berman, “Improvement of agreement in TCM diagnosis among TCM practitioners for persons with the conventional diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis: effect of training,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 381–386, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Han, X. W. Yu, and L. Qin, “Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a general review,” Rheumatology International, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 713–718, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Li, 100 TCM Practitioners in Latest 100 Years: Li Ji-ren & Zhang Shun-hua, China Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China, 2004.
  5. C. Shu, Z. Li, and Y. Li, “Grand Master of TCM Ji-Ren Li's experience on the treatment of Bi Zheng,” Forum on Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 27, pp. 10–12, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Li, B. Zhang, D. Jiang, Y. Wei, and N. Zhang, “Herb network construction and co-module analysis for uncovering the combination rule of traditional Chinese herbal formulae,” BMC Bioinformatics, vol. 11, supplement 11, article S6, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Li, B. Zhang, and N. Zhang, “Network target for screening synergistic drug combinations with application to traditional Chinese medicine,” BMC Systems Biology, vol. 5, supplement 1, p. S10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Zhao and S. Li, “Network-based relating pharmacological and genomic spaces for drug target identification,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 7, Article ID e11764, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. X. Liang, H. Li, and S. Li, “A novel network pharmacology approach to analyse traditional herbal formulae: the Liu-Wei-Di-Huang pill as a case study,” Molecular BioSystems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1014–1022, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. L. Leung, Z.-W. Cao, Z.-H. Jiang, H. Zhou, and L. Liu, “Network-based drug discovery by integrating systems biology and computational technologies,” Briefings in Bioinformatics, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 491–505, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. Sharma and I. N. Sarkar, “Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants,” Briefings in Bioinformatics, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 238–250, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Li and B. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine network pharmacology: theory, methodology and application,” Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 110–120, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Ashburner, C. A. Ball, J. A. Blake et al., “Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology,” Nature Genetics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. P. Davis, B. L. King, S. Mockus et al., “The comparative toxicogenomics database: update 2011,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. D1067–D1072, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. S. Wishart, C. Knox, A. C. Guo et al., “DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. D901–D906, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. S. Keshava Prasad, R. Goel, K. Kandasamy et al., “Human protein reference database—2009 update,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. D767–D772, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Zhang, X. Wang, and S. Li, “An integrative platform of TCM network pharmacology and its application on a herbal formula, Qing-Luo-Yin,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 456747, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. E. Koch, “Angiogenesis: implications for rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 951–962, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Feldmann, F. M. Brennan, and R. N. Maini, “Role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 14, pp. 397–440, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. H. S. Choy and G. S. Panayi, “Cytokine pathways and joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 12, pp. 907–916, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Janossy, G. Panayi, O. Duke, M. Bofill, L. W. Poulter, and G. Goldstein, “Rheumatoid arthritis: a disease of T-lymphocyte/macrophage immunoregulation,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8251, pp. 839–842, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. S. Makarov, “NF-κB in rheumatoid arthritis: a pivotal regulator of inflammation, hyperplasia, and tissue destruction,” Arthritis Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 200–206, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Cutolo, A. Sulli, B. Villaggio, B. Seriolo, and S. Accardo, “Relations between steroid hormones and cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 573–577, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. E. Lipsky, D. M. van der Heijde, E. W. St Clair et al., “Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy Study Group. Infliximab and methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy Study Group,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 22, pp. 1594–1602, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. V. Strand, S. Cohen, M. Schiff et al., “Treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with leflunomide compared with placebo and methotrexate. Leflunomide Rheumatoid Arthritis Investigators Group,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 21, pp. 2542–2550, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. R. Kirwan, “The effect of glucocorticoids on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333, no. 3, pp. 142–146, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. R. de Antonio, H. M. Blotta, R. L. Mamoni et al., “Effects of dexamethasone on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production in rheumatoid arthritis,” The Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 46–51, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. R. O'Dell, “Therapeutic strategies for rheumatoid arthritis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 25, pp. 2591–2602, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Li, Z. Q. Zhang, L. J. Wu, X. G. Zhang, Y. D. Li, and Y. Y. Wang, “Understanding ZHENG in traditional Chinese medicine in the context of neuro-endocrine-immune network,” IET Systems Biology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 51–60, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Li, T. Ma, J. Gu, X. Liang, and S. Li, “Imbalanced network biomarkers for traditional Chinese medicine Syndrome in gastritis patients,” Scientific Reports, vol. 3, article 1543, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Chen, C. Lu, Q. Zha et al., “A network-based analysis of traditional Chinese medicine cold and hot patterns in rheumatoid arthritis,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1-2, pp. 23–30, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. A. van Wietmarschen, W. Dai, A. J. van der Kooij et al., “Characterization of rheumatoid arthritis subtypes using symptom profiles, clinical chemistry and metabolomics measurements,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e44331, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar