Table 3: Descriptions of the locations of the anatomical acupuncture points and landmarks. These landmarks are additionally positioned for localization of the acupoints.

Acupoints/landmarksSurface modelsDescription of the position for the landmark

GV15BoneIn the depression superior to the spinous process of the second cervical vertebra (C2) on the posterior median line
GV16BoneDirectly inferior to the external occipital protuberance
GV17BoneExternal occipital protuberance
GV25SkinTip of the nose
GV26SkinMidpoint of the philtrum midline
GV27SkinMidpoint of the tubercle of the upper lip

GB1Skin and boneOuter canthus of the eye
GB2BoneDepression between the intertragic notch and the condylar process of the mandible
GB3BoneDepression superior to the midpoint of the zygomatic arch
GB7SkinJunction of the vertical line of the posterior border of the temple hairline and the horizontal line of the apex of the auricle
GB8SkinDirectly superior to the auricular apex
GB9SkinDirectly superior to the posterior border of the auricular root
GB12BoneDepression posteroinferior to the mastoid process
GB20BoneInferior to the occipital bone, in the depression between the origins of the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius muscles

ST1Skin and boneBetween the eyeball and the infraorbital margin, directly inferior to the pupil
ST2BoneIn the infraorbital foramen
ST3SkinDirectly inferior to the pupil, at the same level as the inferior border of the ala of the nose
ST4SkinThe angle of the mouth
ST5BoneAnterior to the angle of the mandible, in the depression anterior to the masseter attachment
ST6BoneAngle of the mandible
ST7BoneDepression between the midpoint of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch and the mandibular notch

TE17SkinPosterior to the ear lobe, in the depression anterior to the inferior end of the mastoid process
TE20SkinAuricular apex
TE21Skin and boneIn the depression between the supratragic notch and the condylar process of the mandible
TE22SkinAnterior to the auricular root, posterior to the superficial temporal artery
TE23SkinIn the depression at the lateral end of the eyebrow (it is superior to GB1)

BL1Skin and boneIn the depression between the superomedial parts of the inner canthus of the eye and the medial wall of the orbit
BL2SkinIn the depression at the medial end of the eyebrow

CV23BoneIn the anterior region of the neck, superior to the superior border of the thyroid cartilage, in the depression superior to the hyoid bone, on the anterior median line
CV24SkinIn the depression in the center of the mentolabial sulcus

LI19SkinAt the same level as the midpoint of the philtrum
LI20SkinIn the nasolabial sulcus, at the same level as the midpoint of the lateral border of the ala of the nose

SI17BonePosterior to the angle of the mandible, in the depression anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle
SI18Skin and boneInferior to the zygomatic bone, in the depression directly inferior to the outer canthus of the eye

PupilSkinCenter line of the pupil
YintangSkinMidpoint between the eyebrows
TOPSkinTop of the head