A Novel Korean Red Ginseng Compound Gintonin Inhibited Inflammation by MAPK and NF-κB Pathways and Recovered the Levels of mir-34a and mir-93 in RAW 264.7 Cells
Effects on the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and AP-1 by gintonin. HEK 293T cells were cultured in 24-well plate and after 18 h of incubation were transfected with NF-κB and TK Renilla plasmids using Calcium-Phosphate method. 48 h after transfection, cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of gintonin (6.25 μg/mL–50 μg/mL) and then stimulated with PMA (0.1 μM) for 6 h. Later luciferase activity was measured using Dual-Glo luciferase assay system. NF-κB activity was normalized to TK Renilla activity and concentrations were compared to PMA Renilla luciferase activity. Bar graph is ± SEM of triplicates. , , and were considered statistically significant (a). Similar approach was applied for AP-1 expression (b).