Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 736431, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/736431
Review Article

Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Herbs with Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein

1College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea
2College of Pharmacy and Natural Medicine Research Institute, Mokpo National University, 1666 Youngsan-ro, Muan-gun, Jeonnam 534-729, Republic of Korea

Received 31 July 2014; Revised 20 December 2014; Accepted 20 December 2014

Academic Editor: Angelo A. Izzo

Copyright © 2015 Hyun-Jong Cho and In-Soo Yoon. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Hermann and O. von Richter, “Clinical evidence of herbal drugs as perpetrators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions,” Planta Medica, vol. 78, no. 13, pp. 1458–1477, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. M. de Lima Toccafondo Vieira and S.-M. Huang, “Botanical-drug interactions: a scientific perspective,” Planta Medica, vol. 78, no. 13, pp. 1400–1415, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. S. Bent, “Herbal medicine in the United States: review of efficacy, safety, and regulation: grand rounds at University of California, San Francisco Medical Center,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 854–859, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. A. Bardia, N. L. Nisly, M. B. Zimmerman, B. M. Gryzlak, and R. B. Wallace, “Use of herbs among adults based on evidence-based indications: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 561–566, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S.-B. Kim, I.-S. Yoon, K.-S. Kim et al., “In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effect of puerarin on hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism,” Planta Medica, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 561–567, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. S. Zhou, Y. Gao, W. Jiang, M. Huang, A. Xu, and J. W. Paxton, “Interactions of herbs with cytochrome P450,” Drug Metabolism Reviews, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 35–98, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. O. Pelkonen, M. Turpeinen, J. Hakkola, P. Honkakoski, J. Hukkanen, and H. Raunio, “Inhibition and induction of human cytochrome P450 enzymes: current status,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 667–715, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. J.-J. Wu, C.-Z. Ai, Y. Liu et al., “Interactions between phytochemicals from traditional Chinese medicines and human cytochrome P450 enzymes,” Current Drug Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 599–614, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. H. Schinkel and J. W. Jonker, “Mammalian drug efflux transporters of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) family: an overview,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 3–29, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Zhou, L. Y. Lim, and B. Chowbay, “Herbal modulation of P-glycoprotein,” Drug Metabolism Reviews, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 57–104, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. International Transporter Consortium, K. M. Giacomini, S. M. Huang et al., “Membrane transporters in drug development,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 215–236, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  12. J.-E. Kim, I.-S. Yoon, H.-J. Cho, D.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Choi, and D.-D. Kim, “Emulsion-based colloidal nanosystems for oral delivery of doxorubicin: improved intestinal paracellular absorption and alleviated cardiotoxicity,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 464, no. 1-2, pp. 117–126, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. J.-E. Kim, H.-J. Cho, J. S. Kim et al., “The limited intestinal absorption via paracellular pathway is responsible for the low oral bioavailability of doxorubicin,” Xenobiotica, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 579–591, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. S. Marchetti, R. Mazzanti, J. H. Beijnen, and J. H. M. Schellens, “Concise review: clinical relevance of drug-drug and herb-drug interactions mediated by the ABC transporter ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein),” Oncologist, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 927–941, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. F. V. DeFeudis and K. Drieu, “Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and CNS functions: basic studies and clinical applications,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 25–58, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. J. McKenna, K. Jones, and K. Hughes, “Efficacy, safety, and use of ginkgo biloga in clinical and preclinical applications,” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 70–86, 88–90, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Tang, F. Lou, J. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Zhuang, “Coumaroyl flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba,” Phytochemistry, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 1251–1256, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Shinozuka, K. Umegaki, Y. Kubota et al., “Feeding of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) enhances gene expression of hepatic cytochrome P-450 and attenuates the hypotensive effect of nicardipine in rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 70, no. 23, pp. 2783–2792, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Tang, J. Sun, Y. Zhang, L. Li, F. Cui, and Z. He, “Herb-drug interactions: effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 2441–2445, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. C. Gaudineau, R. Beckerman, S. Welbourn, and K. Auclair, “Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by multiple constituents of the Ginkgo biloba extract,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 318, no. 4, pp. 1072–1078, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. S. M. Robertson, R. T. Davey, J. Voell, E. Formentini, R. M. Alfaro, and S. R. Penzak, “Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on lopinavir, midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 591–599, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. B. H. Hellum and O. G. Nilsen, “In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by trade herbal products,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 466–475, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. L. Fan, G.-Y. Tao, G. Wang et al., “Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 944–949, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. L. L. von Moltke, J. L. Weemhoff, E. Bedir et al., “Inhibition of human cytochromes P450 by components of Ginkgo biloba,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 1039–1044, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. Y.-H. Liu, S.-L. Mo, H.-C. Bi et al., “Regulation of human pregnane X receptor and its target gene cytochrome P450 3A4 by Chinese herbal compounds and a molecular docking study,” Xenobiotica, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 259–280, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. K. Rahman, “Historical perspective on garlic and cardiovascular disease,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, supplement 3, pp. 977S–979S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. S. Joshi and P. N. Kaul, “Alternative medicine: herbal drugs and their critical appraisal part I,” Progress in Drug Research, vol. 56, pp. 1–76, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Colalto, “Herbal interactions on absorption of drugs: mechanisms of action and clinical risk assessment,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 207–227, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. H. Amagase, B. L. Petesch, H. Matsuura, S. Kasuga, and Y. Itakura, “Intake of garlic and its bioactive components,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 955S–962S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Kishimoto, M. Ueda, H. Yoshinaga, K. Goda, and S.-S. Park, “Combined effects of ethanol and garlic on hepatic ethanol metabolism in mice,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 275–286, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. C. Foster, M. S. Foster, S. Vandenhoek et al., “An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibition by garlic,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 176–184, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. S. Lee, A. S. A. Andrade, and C. Flexner, “Interactions between natural health products and antiretroviral drugs: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1052–1059, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. Y. H. Choi, Y.-W. Chin, and Y. G. Kim, “Herb-drug interactions: focus on metabolic enzymes and transporters,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1843–1863, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. M. L. Dupuis, M. Flego, A. Molinari, and M. Cianfriglia, “Saquinavir induces stable and functional expression of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein in human CD4 T-lymphoblastoid CEMrev cells,” HIV Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 338–345, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Jin and T. A. Baillie, “Metabolism of the chemoprotective agent diallyl sulfide to glutathione conjugates in rats,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 318–327, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. C. Teyssier, L. Guenot, M. Suschetet, and M.-H. Siess, “Metabolism of diallyl disulfide by human liver microsomal cytochromes P- 450 and flavin-containing monooxygenases,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 835–841, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Y. Yang, P. D. L. Chao, Y. C. Hou, S. Y. Tsai, K. C. Wen, and S. L. Hsiu, “Marked decrease of cyclosporin bioavailability caused by coadministration of ginkgo and onion in rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1572–1578, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. D. Saleheen, S. A. Ali, and M. M. Yasinzai, “Antileishmanial activity of aqueous onion extract in vitro,” Fitoterapia, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 9–13, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. E. Campos, Y. S. Diniz, A. C. Cataneo, L. A. Faine, M. J. Q. F. Alves, and E. L. B. Novelli, “Hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of onion, Allium cepa: dietary onion addition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycaemic effects on diabetic rats,” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 241–246, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. J. Patel, B. Buddha, S. Dey, D. Pal, and A. K. Mitra, “In vitro interaction of the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir with herbal constituents: changes in P-gp and CYP3A4 activity,” American Journal of Therapeutics, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 262–277, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. P. Maliakal, P. F. Coville, and S. Wanwimolruk, “Tea consumption modulates hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in Wistar rats,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 569–577, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Bu-Abbas, M. N. Clifford, R. Walker, and C. Ioannides, “Modulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 activity and carcinogen bioactivation by black and decaffeinated black tea,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 41–47, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Nishikawa, N. Ariyoshi, A. Kotani et al., “Effects of continuous ingestion of green tea or grape seed extracts on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam,” Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 280–289, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. I. Netsch, H. Gutmann, C. B. Schmidlin, C. Aydogan, and J. Drewe, “Induction of CYP1A by green tea extract in human intestinal cell lines,” Planta Medica, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 514–520, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. J. Jodoin, M. Demeule, and R. Béliveau, “Inhibition of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein activity by green tea polyphenols,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1542, no. 1–3, pp. 149–159, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y. Mei, F. Qian, D. Wei, and J. Liu, “Reversal of cancer multidrug resistance by green tea polyphenols,” The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1307–1314, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. D. A. Balentine, S. A. Wiseman, and L. C. M. Bouwens, “The chemistry of tea flavonoids,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 693–704, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  48. J. D. Lambert and C. S. Yang, “Cancer chemopreventive activity and bioavailability of tea and tea polyphenols,” Mutation Research, vol. 523-524, pp. 201–208, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Antonello, D. Montemurro, M. Bolognesi et al., “Prevention of hypertension, cardiovascular damage and endothelial dysfunction with green tea extracts,” The American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1321–1328, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. I. Papparella, G. Ceolotto, D. Montemurro et al., “Green tea attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats by modulating reactive oxygen species production and the Src/epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt signaling pathway,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 138, no. 9, pp. 1596–1601, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Y.-W. Chin, H.-A. Jung, Y. Liu et al., “Anti-oxidant constituents of the roots and stolons of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 4691–4697, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. M. N. Asl and H. Hosseinzadeh, “Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp. and its bioactive compounds,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 709–724, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. Y. Fujisawa, M. Sakamoto, M. Matsushita, T. Fujita, and K. Nishioka, “Glycyrrhizin inhibits the lytic pathway of complement—possible mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect on liver cells in viral hepatitis,” Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 799–804, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Paolini, L. Pozzetti, A. Sapone, and G. Cantelli-Forti, “Effect of licorice and glycyrrhizin on murine liver CYP-dependent monooxygenases,” Life Sciences, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 571–582, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J.-H. Tu, Y.-J. He, Y. Chen et al., “Effect of glycyrrhizin on the activity of CYP3A enzyme in humans,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 805–810, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. T. Nabekura, T. Yamaki, K. Ueno, and S. Kitagawa, “Inhibition of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1 by dietary phytochemicals,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 867–873, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. F. Borrelli, R. Capasso, A. Pinto, and A. A. Izzo, “Inhibitory effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on rat ileal motility in vitro,” Life Sciences, vol. 74, no. 23, pp. 2889–2896, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  58. M. N. Ghayur and A. H. Gilani, “Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1889–1897, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. A. S. El-Sharaky, A. A. Newairy, M. A. Kamel, and S. M. Eweda, “Protective effect of ginger extract against bromobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1584–1590, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. B. H. Ali, G. Blunden, M. O. Tanira, and A. Nemmar, “Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 409–420, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  61. Y. Kimura, H. Ito, and T. Hatano, “Effects of mace and nutmeg on human cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2C9 activity,” Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1977–1982, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. I. S. Kim, S. Y. Kim, and H. H. Yoo, “Effects of an aqueous-ethanolic extract of ginger on cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated drug metabolism,” Pharmazie, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 1007–1009, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. Nabekura, S. Kamiyama, and S. Kitagawa, “Effects of dietary chemopreventive phytochemicals on P-glycoprotein function,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 327, no. 3, pp. 866–870, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  64. S. Pandit, P. K. Mukherjee, K. Mukherjee et al., “Cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential of selected Indian spices—possible food drug interaction,” Food Research International, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 69–74, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. K. Srinivasan, “Black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 735–748, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. S. Bajad, K. L. Bedi, A. K. Singla, and R. K. Johri, “Antidiarrhoeal activity of piperine in mice,” Planta Medica, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 284–287, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  67. Y.-F. Bai and H. Xu, “Protective action of piperine against experimental gastric ulcer,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 357–359, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. R. Stöhr, P.-G. Xiao, and R. Bauer, “Constituents of Chinese Piper species and their inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 75, no. 2-3, pp. 133–139, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. Mittal and R. L. Gupta, “In vitro antioxidant activity of piperine,” Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 271–274, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Z. Lin, J. R. S. Hoult, D. C. Bennett, and A. Raman, “Stimulation of mouse melanocyte proliferation by Piper nigrum fruit extract and its main alkaloid, piperine,” Planta Medica, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 600–603, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  71. S. Bajad, K. L. Bedi, A. K. Singla, and R. K. Johri, “Piperine inhibits gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in rats and mice,” Planta Medica, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 176–179, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  72. V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, and E. P. Norkus, “Piperine, an alkaloid derived from black pepper increases serum response of beta-carotene during 14-days of oral beta-carotene supplementation,” Nutrition Research, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 381–388, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, and L. Prakash, “Piperine derived from black pepper increases the plasma levels of coenzyme q10 following oral supplementation,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 109–113, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. H. Kang, S. M. Won, S. S. Park, S. G. Kim, R. F. Novak, and N. D. Kim, “Piperine effects on the expression of P4502E1, P4502B and P4501A in rat,” Xenobiotica, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1195–1204, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. R. K. Bhardwaj, H. Glaeser, L. Becquemont, U. Klotz, S. K. Gupta, and M. F. Fromm, “Piperine, a major constituent of black pepper, inhibits human P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 302, no. 2, pp. 645–650, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  76. G. Sancheti and P. K. Goyal, “Modulatory influence of Rosemarinus officinalis on DMBA-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 331–335, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. N. T. Ngo, D. B. Williams, and R. J. Head, “Rosemary and cancer prevention: preclinical perspectives,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 946–954, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. P. Debersac, J. M. Heydel, M. J. Amiot et al., “Induction of cytochrome P450 and/or detoxication enzymes by various extracts of rosemary: description of specific patterns,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 907–918, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. A. Plouzek, H. P. Ciolino, R. Clarke, and G. G. Yeh, “Inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity and reversal of multidrug resistance in vitro by rosemary extract,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1541–1545, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. Y. Liu, T. J. Flynn, M. S. Ferguson, and E. M. Hoagland, “Use of the combination index to determine interactions between plant-derived phenolic acids on hepatotoxicity endpoints in human and rat hepatoma cells,” Phytomedicine, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 461–468, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  81. Y. Pan, B. A. Abd-Rashid, Z. Ismail et al., “In vitro effects of active constituents and extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus on the activities of three major human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 190, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  82. F.-R. Li, Y.-Y. Fu, D.-H. Jiang et al., “Reversal effect of rosmarinic acid on multidrug resistance in SGC7901/Adr cell,” Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 276–285, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  83. H. J. Kim, Y. J. Chun, J. D. Park, S. I. Kim, J. K. Roh, and T. C. Jeong, “Protection of rat liver microsomes against carbon tetrachloride-lnduced lipid peroxidation by red ginseng,” Planta Medica, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 415–418, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  84. C.-T. Yu, J. Chen, X. W. Teng, V. Tong, and T. K. H. Chang, “Lack of evidence for induction of CYP2B1, CYP3A23, and CYP1A2 gene expression by Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius extracts in adult rats and primary cultures of rat hepatocytes,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 19–22, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. T. K. H. Chang, J. Chen, and S. A. Benetton, “In vitro effect of standardized ginseng extracts and individual ginsenosides on the catalytic activity of human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 378–384, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. L. Henderson, M. R. Harkey, M. E. Gershwin, R. M. Hackman, J. S. Stern, and D. M. Stresser, “Effects of ginseng components on c-DNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzyme catalytic activity,” Life Sciences, vol. 65, no. 15, pp. L209–L214, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. H.-Y. Kwon, E.-H. Kim, S.-W. Kim, S.-N. Kim, J.-D. Park, and D.-K. Rhee, “Selective toxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 on multidrug resistant cells by membrane fluidity modulation,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 171–177, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. B. B. Aggarwal and B. Sung, “Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases: an age-old spice with modern targets,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 85–94, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  89. M.-L. Kuo, T.-S. Huang, and J.-K. Lin, “Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-tumor promoter, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Molecular Basis of Disease, vol. 1317, no. 2, pp. 95–100, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. P. S. Babu and K. Srinivasan, “Hypolipidemic action of curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 166, no. 1-2, pp. 169–175, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. N. Chainani-Wu, “Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa),” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 161–168, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  92. B. B. Aggarwal, A. Kumar, and A. C. Bharti, “Anticancer potential of curcumin: preclinical and clinical studies,” Anticancer Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 363–398, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. W. Zhang, T. M. C. Tan, and L.-Y. Lim, “Impact of curcumin-induced changes in P-glycoprotein and CYP3A expression on the pharmacokinetics of peroral celiprolol and midazolam in rats,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  94. N. Romiti, R. Tongiani, F. Cervelli, and E. Chieli, “Effects of curcumin on P-glycoprotein in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes,” Life Sciences, vol. 62, no. 25, pp. 2349–2358, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. C. S. Yang, T. J. Smith, and J.-Y. Hong, “Cytochrome P-450 enzymes as targets for chemoprevention against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity: opportunities and limitations,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 7, supplement, pp. 1982s–1986s, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. X.-L. Hou, K. Takahashi, K. Tanaka et al., “Curcuma drugs and curcumin regulate the expression and function of P-gp in Caco-2 cells in completely opposite ways,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 358, no. 1-2, pp. 224–229, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  97. X.-L. Hou, K. Takahashi, N. Kinoshita et al., “Possible inhibitory mechanism of Curcuma drugs on CYP3A4 in 1α,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 treated Caco-2 cells,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 337, no. 1-2, pp. 169–177, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  98. P. M. Barnes, B. Bloom, and R. L. Nahin, “Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007,” National health statistics reports, no. 12, pp. 1–23, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. P. A. de Smet, “Clinical risk management of herb-drug interactions,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 258–267, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus