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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 756346, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/756346
Research Article

Synergistic Use of Geniposide and Ginsenoside Rg1 Balance Microglial TNF- and TGF-1 following Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation In Vitro: A Genome-Wide Survey

1Institute of Basic Theory, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Dong Zhi Men Nei Nan Xiao Jie, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100700, China
2Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 1 Xiyuan Caochang, Haidian District, Beijing 100091, China
3China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Dong Zhi Men Nei Nan Xiao Jie, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100700, China

Received 10 May 2015; Revised 2 October 2015; Accepted 15 October 2015

Academic Editor: Maria Camilla Bergonzi

Copyright © 2015 Jun Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ischemia-activated microglia are like a double-edged sword, characterized by both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to reveal the synergistic effect of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 based on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β1 balance of microglia. BV2 microglial cells were divided into 5 groups: control, model (oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)), geniposide-treated, ginsenoside-Rg1-treated, and combination-treated. A series of assays were used to detect on (i) cell viability; (ii) NO content; (iii) expression (content) of TNF-α and TGF-β1; and (iv) gene expression profiles. The results showed that integrated use of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 significantly inhibited NO level and protected cell viability, improved the content and expression of TGF-β1, and reduced the content and expression of TNF-α. Separated use of geniposide or ginsenoside Rg1 showed different effects at different emphases. Next-generation sequencing showed that Fcγ-receptor-mediated phagocytosis pathway played a key regulatory role in the balance of TNF-α and TGF-β1 when cotreated with geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that synergistic drug combination of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 in the treatment of stroke is a feasible avenue for the application.