Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Salivary IgA, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Young Soccer Players

Table 4

Biochemical profile of the soccer players at baseline and after 90 days of supplementation.

AstaxanthinPlaceboANOVA
Before supplementationAfter supplementationBefore supplementationAfter supplementationT ST × S

AST (U/L)37.5 (29.2–48.1)23.8 (20.1–28.1)41.0 (35.7–47.0)28.7 (24.5–33.6) 0.001 <0.05ns
ALT (U/L)21.1 (16.8–25.6)18.9 (15.6–21.6)20.7 (18.6–22.5)19.2 (16.1–22.6) ns ns ns
CK (U/L)448 (330–608)248 (172–360)525 (283–974)367 (244–552) <0.01 nsns
LDH (U/L)418.3 ± 13.8303.5 ± 10.3441.2 ± 17.5359.4 ± 15.8<0.001 <0.05 ns
UA (μmol/L)330.3 ± 19.1300.4 ± 14.0346.5 ± 20.9315.9 ± 15.5<0.05 ns ns
Cre (μmol/L)129.6 ± 2.1126.5 ± 2.2133.1 ± 2.3130.5 ± 2.4<0.05 nsns
hs-CRP (mg/L)1.35 (1.00–1.82)1.19 (0.89–1.59)1.26 (0.89–1.78)1.98 (1.24–3.17) ns ns0.05
CHOL (mmol/L)4.28 ± 0.204.39 ± 0.244.54 ± 0.284.50 ± 0.27 ns ns ns
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.27 ± 0.191.30 ± 0.051.29 ± 0.071.31 ± 0.06 ns ns ns
LDL-C (mmol/L)2.63 ± 0.192.73 ± 0.202.97 ± 0.242.91 ± 0.25 ns ns ns
TG (mmol/L)0.84 ± 0.120.80 ± 0.080.95 ± 0.140.70 ± 0.09 ns ns ns

Mean ± SE.; Geometric mean values (95th confidence interval). ANOVA: T-training, S-supplementation, and T × S-training and supplementation interaction effect. The difference in relation to baseline was significant at (), (), and ().