Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 785638, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/785638
Research Article

UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

1Unigen, Inc., 3005 1st Avenue, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
2Unigen, Inc., No. 450-86, Maebong-Ro, Dongnam-Gu, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam 330-863, Republic of Korea

Received 22 October 2014; Revised 12 January 2015; Accepted 18 January 2015

Academic Editor: Wenchuan Lin

Copyright © 2015 Mesfin Yimam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. F. Loeser, “Osteoarthritis year in review 2013: biology,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1436–1442, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Y. J. Wenham and P. G. Conaghan, “New horizons in osteoarthritis,” Age and Ageing, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 272–278, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X. Ayral, E. H. Pickering, T. G. Woodworth, N. Mackillop, and M. Dougados, “Synovitis: a potential predictive factor of structural progression of medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis—results of a 1 year longitudinal arthroscopic study in 422 patients,” Osteoarthritis & Cartilage, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 361–367, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. W. Roemer, A. Guermazi, D. T. Felson et al., “Presence of MRI-detected joint effusion and synovitis increases the risk of cartilage loss in knees without osteoarthritis at 30-month follow-up: the MOST study,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 1804–1809, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R.-R. Da, Y. Qin, D. Baeten, and Y. Zhang, “B cell clonal expansion and somatic hypermutation of Ig variable heavy chain genes in the synovial membrane of patients with osteoarthritis,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 557–565, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. I. Sakkas and C. D. Platsoucas, “The role of T cells in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 409–424, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. W. Roemer, D. T. Felson, T. Yang et al., “The association between meniscal damage of the posterior horns and localized posterior synovitis detected on T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI–the MOST study,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 573–581, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. K. M. Jordan, N. K. Arden, M. Doherty et al., “Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials ESCISIT. EULAR Recommendations 2003: an evidence based approach to the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a Task Force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT),” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 1145–1155, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. W. Zhang, M. Doherty, N. Arden et al., “EULAR evidence based recommendations for the management of hip osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT),” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 669–681, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Zhang, R. W. Moskowitz, G. Nuki et al., “OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, part I: critical appraisal of existing treatment guidelines and systematic review of current research evidence,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 981–1000, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. Zhang, R. W. Moskowitz, G. Nuki et al., “OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 137–162, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Zhang, G. Nuki, R. W. Moskowitz et al., “OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Part III. Changes in evidence following systematic cumulative update of research published through January 2009,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 476–499, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. E. McAlindon, R. R. Bannuru, M. C. Sullivan et al., “OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis,” Osteoarthritis & Cartilage, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 363–388, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Rigoglou and A. G. Papavassiliou, “The NF-κB signalling pathway in osteoarthritis,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 2580–2584, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Kalaiselvi, K. Rajashree, L. Bharathi Priya, and V. V. Padma, “Cytoprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against deoxynivalenol-induced toxicity through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in HT-29 cells,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 56, pp. 110–118, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J.-A. Yang, J.-H. Choi, and S.-J. Rhee, “Effects of green tea catechin on phospholipase A2 activity and antithrombus in streptozotocin diabetic rats,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 337–346, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Hošek, M. Bartos, S. Chudík et al., “Natural compound cudraflavone B shows promising anti-inflammatory properties in vitro,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 614–619, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. Y.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Tien, C.-H. Chen et al., “Morus alba and active compound oxyresveratrol exert anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of leukocyte migration involving MEK/ERK signaling,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, article 45, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K.-O. Chung, B.-Y. Kim, M.-H. Lee et al., “In-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory effect of oxyresveratrol from Morus alba L.,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1695–1700, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. S. Cheon, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Son, H. W. Chang, S. S. Kang, and H. P. Kim, “Effects of prenylated flavonoids and bioflavonoids on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production from the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7,” Planta Medica, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 596–600, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. D. Zhang, S. Ling, H. P. Zhang et al., “Effects of total flavones from Morus alba L. on inflammation reaction of macrophages,” Shizhen Guoyi Guoyao, vol. 21, pp. 2787–2790, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  22. J. Y. Wang and M. H. Roehrl, “Glycosaminoglycans are a potential cause of rheumatoid arthritis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 22, pp. 14362–14367, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. J. Mankin and L. Lippiello, “The glycosaminoglycans of normal and arthritic cartilage,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1712–1719, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. L. Marker and J. D. Pomonis, “The monosodium iodoacetate model of osteoarthritis pain in the rat,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 851, pp. 239–248, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. D. Sandy, C. R. Flannery, and A. H. K. Plaas, “Structural studies on proteoglycan catabolism in rabbit articular cartilage explant cultures,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 931, no. 3, pp. 255–261, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. Correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data.,” The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery—American Volume, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 523–537, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. B. Goldring, “The role of the chondrocyte in osteoarthritis,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1916–1926, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  28. R. E. Guzman, M. G. Evans, S. Bove, B. Morenko, and K. Kilgore, “Mono-iodoacetate-induced histologic changes in subchondral bone and articular cartilage of rat femorotibial joints: an animal model of osteoarthritis,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 619–624, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. B. Goldring, M. Otero, D. A. Plumb et al., “Roles of inflammatory and anabolic cytokines in cartilage metabolism: signals and multiple effectors converge upon MMP-13 regulation in osteoarthritis,” European Cells and Materials, vol. 21, pp. 202–220, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. X.-P. Ge, Y.-H. Gan, C.-G. Zhang et al., “Requirement of the NF-κB pathway for induction of Wnt-5A by interleukin-1β in condylar chondrocytes of the temporomandibular joint: functional crosstalk between the Wnt-5A and NF-κB signaling pathways,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 111–117, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. Schuelert and J. J. McDougall, “Grading of monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis reveals a concentration-dependent sensitization of nociceptors in the knee joint of the rat,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 465, no. 2, pp. 184–188, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Ferreira-Gomes, S. Adães, M. Mendonça, and J. M. Castro-Lopes, “Analgesic effects of lidocaine, morphine and diclofenac on movement-induced nociception, as assessed by the Knee-Bend and CatWalk tests in a rat model of osteoarthritis,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 617–624, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. Wu, X. Xu, Y. Dai, and L. Xia, “Therapeutic effect of the saponin fraction from Clematis chinensis osbeck roots on osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate through protecting articular cartilage,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 538–546, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Lee, Y. Park, C. W. Ahn, S. H. Park, E. Y. Jung, and H. J. Suh, “Deer bone extract suppresses articular cartilage damage induced by monosodium iodoacetate in osteoarthritic rats: an in vivo micro-computed tomography study,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 701–706, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. H. Matsui, M. Shimizu, and H. Tsuji, “Cartilage and subchondral bone interaction in osteoarthrosis of human knee joint: a histological and histomorphometric study,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 333–342, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  36. C. Westacott, “Interactions between subchondral bone and cartilage in OA. Cells from osteoarthritic bone can alter cartilage metabolism,” Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 507–509, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. I. Westacott, G. R. Webb, M. G. Warnock, J. V. Sims, and C. J. Elson, “Alteration of cartilage metabolism by cells from osteoarthritic bone,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1282–1291, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Sanchez, M. A. Deberg, N. Piccardi, P. Msika, J.-Y. L. Reginster, and Y. E. Henrotin, “Osteoblasts from the sclerotic subchondral bone downregulate aggrecan but upregulate metalloproteinases expression by chondrocytes. This effect is mimicked by interleukin-6, -1β and oncostatin M pre-treated non-sclerotic osteoblasts,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 979–987, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. R. Colby, “Calculating synergistic and antagonistic responses of herbicide combinations,” Weeds, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 20–22, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar