Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 817096, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/817096
Research Article

Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study

1Department of Medicinal Crop Research, Rural Development Administration, Eumseong, Chungbuk 369-873, Republic of Korea
2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705, Republic of Korea
3Rehabilitation Science Program, Department of Health Science, Korea University Graduate School, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea
4National Rehabilitation Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
5College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
6Department of Oriental Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-091, Republic of Korea
7Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
8Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea

Received 30 May 2015; Accepted 28 July 2015

Academic Editor: Andreas Sandner-Kiesling

Copyright © 2015 Young Ock Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Balamurugan, “Smilax chinensis Linn. (Liliaceae) root attenuates insulin resistance and ameliorate obesity in high diet induced obese rat,” South Indian Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 47–51, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  2. Y. Taoka and K. Okajima, “Spinal cord injury in the rat,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 341–358, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. H. Tator and M. G. Fehlings, “Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanisms,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 15–26, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Bartholdi and M. E. Schwab, “Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine mrna upon experimental spinal cord injury in mouse: an in situ hybridization study,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1422–1438, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Hayashi, T. Ueyama, K. Nemoto, T. Tamaki, and E. Senba, “Sequential mRNA expression for immediate early genes, cytokines, and neurotrophins in spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 203–218, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. Liu, X. Ling, J. Wen, and J. Liu, “The role of reactive nitrogen species in secondary spinal cord injury: formation of nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and nitrated protein,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 2144–2154, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Adachi, Y. Yimin, K. Satake et al., “Localization of cyclooxygenase-2 induced following traumatic spinal cord injury,” Neuroscience Research, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 73–80, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Nakamura, R. A. Houghtling, L. MacArthur, B. M. Bayer, and B. S. Bregman, “Differences in cytokine gene expression profile between acute and secondary injury in adult rat spinal cord,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 313–325, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. R. Bethea, “Spinal cord injury-induced inflammation: a dual-edged sword,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 128, pp. 33–42, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Xu, G.-M. Kim, S. Chen et al., “INOS and nitrotyrosine expression after spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 523–532, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. Yu, Y. Matsuyama, S. Nakashima, M. Yanase, K. Kiuchi, and N. Ishiguro, “Effects of MPSS and a potent iNOS inhibitor on traumatic spinal cord injury,” NeuroReport, vol. 15, no. 13, pp. 2103–2107, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Chatzipanteli, R. Garcia, A. E. Marcillo, K. E. Loor, S. Kraydieh, and W. D. Dietrich, “Temporal and segmental distribution of constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthases after traumatic spinal cord injury: effect of aminoguanidine treatment,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 639–651, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. K. Resnick, S. H. Graham, C. E. Dixon, and D. W. Marion, “Role of cyclooxygenase 2 in acute spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1005–1013, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Zhang, Y. Yin, S.-J. Xu, Y.-P. Wu, and W.-S. Chen, “Inflammation & apoptosis in spinal cord injury,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 287–296, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. K. Kwon, E. Okon, J. Hillyer et al., “A systematic review of non-invasive pharmacologic neuroprotective treatments for acute spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1545–1588, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. O. Yang, H. R. Park, E. S. Sohn et al., “Classification of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER) extract using 1H NMR spectroscopy and its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3-L1 cells,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, article 455, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. A. S. Attele, J. A. Wu, and C.-S. Yuan, “Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1685–1693, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H.-W. Park, G. In, S.-T. Han et al., “Simultaneous determination of 30 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng preparations using ultra performance liquid chromatography,” Journal of Ginseng Research, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 457–467, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J.-Y. Shin, J.-Y. Song, Y.-S. Yun, H.-O. Yang, D.-K. Rhee, and S. Pyo, “Immunostimulating effects of acidic polysaccharides extract of Panax ginseng on macrophage function,” Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 469–482, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. I. Demir, N. Kiymaz, B. O. Gudu et al., “Study of the neuroprotective effect of ginseng on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in experimental diffuse head trauma,” Acta Neurochirurgica, vol. 155, no. 5, pp. 913–922, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W.-D. Rausch, S. Liu, G. Gille, and K. Radad, “Neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides,” Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 369–375, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. J. Yong, B. K. Young, W. P. Seung et al., “Neuroprotective effect of ginseng total saponins in experimental traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 291–296, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J.-S. Park, E.-M. Park, D.-H. Kim et al., “Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginseng saponins in activated microglia,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 209, no. 1-2, pp. 40–49, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. C. Ji, Y. B. Kim, S. W. Park et al., “Neuroprotective effect of ginseng total saponins in experimental traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 291–296, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. S. Joo, Y. M. Yoo, B. W. Ahn et al., “Prevention of inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity by Rg3 and its role in microglial activation,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1392–1396, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Sakanaka, P. Zhu, B. Zhang et al., “Intravenous infusion of dihydroginsenoside Rb1 prevents compressive spinal cord injury and ischemic brain damage through upregulation of VEGF and Bcl-xL,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1037–1054, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. A. Sevcik, B. M. Jonas, T. H. Lindsay et al., “Endogenous opioids inhibit early-stage pancreatic pain in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer,” Gastroenterology, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 900–910, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. U. Wesselmann, P. P. Czakanski, G. Affaitati, and M. A. Giamberardino, “Uterine inflammation as a noxious visceral stimulus: behavioral characterization in the rat,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 246, no. 2, pp. 73–76, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. M. Basso, M. S. Beattie, and J. C. Bresnahan, “A sensitive and reliable locomotor rating scale for open field testing in rats,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Gale, H. Kerasidis, and J. R. Wrathall, “Spinal cord contusion in the rat: behavioral analysis of functional neurologic impairment,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 123–134, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J.-I. Jung, J. Kim, S. K. Hong, and Y. W. Yoon, “Long-term follow-up of cutaneous hypersensitivity in rats with a spinal cord contusion,” The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 299–306, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. M. Lee, T. Y. Yune, S. J. Kim et al., “Minocycline inhibits apoptotic cell death via attenuation of TNF-α expression following iNOS/NO induction by lipopolysaccharide in neuron/glia co-cultures,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 568–578, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Y. Yune, J. Y. Lee, G. Y. Jung et al., “Minocycline alleviates death of oligodendrocytes by inhibiting pro-nerve growth factor production in microglia after spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 27, no. 29, pp. 7751–7761, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. L. Block and J. S. Hong, “Chronic microglial activation and progressive dopaminergic neurotoxicity,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1127–1132, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Kriz and M. Lalancette-Hébert, “Inflammation, plasticity and real-time imaging after cerebral ischemia,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 497–509, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Y. B. Lee, T. Y. Yune, S. Y. Baik et al., “Role of tumor necrosis factor-α in neuronal and glial apoptosis after spinal cord injury,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 190–195, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. E. Hill, M. S. Beattie, and J. C. Bresnahan, “Degeneration and sprouting of identified descending supraspinal axons after contusive spinal cord injury in the rat,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 171, no. 1, pp. 153–169, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. M. Lee, T. Y. Yune, S. J. Kim et al., “Minocycline reduces cell death and improves functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in the rat,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1017–1027, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus