Table 7: The pharmacological effects of Dendrobium species.

SpeciesChemical compounds/structuresPharmacological activitiesReferences

D.  nobile PolysaccharidesScavenging effect of hydroxyl, ABTS, and DPPH[40, 41]
(SR)Nobilin D, nobilin E, nobiloneInhibitory on NO production[42]
(SR)PhenanthrenesInhibition of LPS-induced of nitric oxide production [38]
(SR)Dendroside A, Dendronobilosides AImmunomodulatory activity[43, 44]
(SR)Glycosides (dendrosides D–G)Significant Stimulation of the proliferation of mouse T and/or B lymphocytes[43, 44]
(SR)Polysaccharides (DNP-W1, DNP-W2, DNP-W3, DNP-W4)Anticancer activity[45]
(SR)4,7-Dihydroxy-2-methoxy-9,10-dihyAnticancer activity:[46]
Drophenanthrene, denbinobin(SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells)[46]
(SR)(SR)(human lung carcinoma), SK-OV-3[47]
(SR)(SR)(human ovary adenocarcinoma)[47]
(SR)(SR)HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cell lines[47]
(SR)BibenzylInhibit on furylfuramide[48]
(SR)(SR)4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO)[48]
(SR)(SR)N-Methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine[48]
(SR)(SR)UV irradiation[48]
(SR)(SR)3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3b]indole (Trp-P-1)[48]
(SR)(SR)Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)[48]
(SR)(SR)Aflatoxin B(1)[48]
(SR)Nobilin DAnti-inflammatory activity[42]
(SR)Nobilin E(SR)[42]
(SR)Nobilone(SR)[42]
(SR)R1 = R2 = OCH3 R3 = OH R4 = H(SR)[42]
(SR)R1 = R2 = R3 = OCH3 R4 = H(SR)[42]
(SR)R1 = R3 = OCH3 R2 = OH R4 = H(SR)[42]
(SR)R1 = OCH3 R2 = R3 = OH R4 = H(SR)[42]
(SR)R1 = R3 = OH R2 = R4 = H(SR)[42]
(SR)R1 = R3 = OH R2 = H R4 = OCH3(SR)[42]
D.  loddigesii PhenanthrenesInhibition of nitric oxide (NO)[49]
(SR)Loddigesiinols A–D(SR)[49]
(SR)Moscatilin, moscatin, moscatilin diacetateInhibited both AA and collagen-induced platelet aggregations[50, 51]
(SR)Inhibition of aggregation of rabbit platelets induced by arachidonic acid and collagen[50, 51]
D.  huoshanense PolysaccharidesInducing several cytokines, including IFN-c, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1[52]
(SR)(SR)Immunostimulating activity[52]
(SR)(SR)Increase of TNF-α production[52]
(SR)(SR)Inducing several cytokines, including hematopoietic growth factors GM-CSF and GCSF[52]
D.   denneanum PolysaccharidesScavenging effect of hydroxyl, ABTS, and DPPH[53]
D.   fimbriatum PolysaccharidesScavenging effect of hydroxyl, ABTS, DPPH[54]
D.   candidum BibenzylAntioxidant activity[20]
D.  officinalis Immunomodulatory activity[55]
D.  findlayanum Inhibition of Alternaria alternata and other[56]
D.  densiflorum Moscatilin, homoeriodictyol, scoparone, scopoletin, gigantolAntiplatelet aggregation activity[50, 51]
D. nobile, D.  chrysanthum ErianinAnticancer activity: hepatoma Bel7402 melanoma A375 and HL-60 cells[57]
D. chrysanthum, D.  huoshanense DendrochrysaneneTNF-, IL-8, IL-10, and iNOS mRNAs were induced readily from mouse peritoneal macrophages by LPS[58]
D. devonianum, D.  thyrsiflorum Epicoccum sp., epicorazine A Epicorazine BInhibition of S. aureus, E. coli, and B. subtilis [59, 60]
D. devonianum, D.  thyrsiflorum Pyrenophorol derivativesInhibition of E.coli, Bacillus megaterium, and Microbotryum violaceum [61]

Notes: —: no tests; SR: similar.