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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 873039, 8 pages
Review Article

Nonpharmacological Interventions for Pain Management in Paramedicine and the Emergency Setting: A Review of the Literature

1School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW 2795, Australia
2University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD 4556, Australia

Received 17 November 2014; Accepted 13 March 2015

Academic Editor: Fu-Chao Liu

Copyright © 2015 Sok Cheon Pak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Paramedicine and the emergency medical services have been moving in the direction of advancing pharmaceutical intervention for the management of pain in both acute and chronic situations. This coincides with other areas of advanced life support and patient management strategies that have been well researched and continue to benefit from the increasing evidence. Even though paramedic practice is firmly focused on pharmacological interventions to alleviate pain, there is emerging evidence proposing a range of nonpharmacological options that can have an important role in pain management. This review highlights literature that suggests that paramedicine and emergency medical services should be considering the application of complementary and alternative therapies which can enhance current practice and reduce the use of pharmacological interventions.