Table 1: Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants at baseline.

CharacteristicTai ChiControl
( = 106)( = 107)
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)

Age—years52 (12)53 (11)
Female sex—number of patients (%)75 (70.8)74 (69.2)
Higher school or higher education (number of patients) (%)88 (83)91 (85)
Employment—number of patients (%)
 Paid work50 (47.2)52 (48.6)
 No paid work17 (16.0)24 (22.4)
 Unable to work due to sickness or injury15 (14.2)16 (15.0)
 Retired or other24 (22.6)15 (14.0)
Medication—number of patients (%)
 Depression67 (63.2)63 (58.9)
 Anxiety7 (6.6)4 (3.7)
 Sleep8 (7.5)11 (10.3)
Self-reported coexisting chronic conditions—number of patients (%)a,b
 036 (35.6)38 (35.5)
 132 (31.7)37 (34.6)
 ≥233 (32.7)32 (29.9)
CES-D depression score15.7 (5.5)17.1 (4.9)
DASS depression score18.4 (9.4)20.2 (11.4)
DASS anxiety score9.8 (7.6)10.3 (8.0)
DASS stress score18.5 (8.8)19.1 (9.2)
Leg strength test (number of stands in 30 seconds)16.3 (5.2)15.3 (4.3)
Waist circumference (cm)105.5 (11.4)105.8 (3.9)
Body mass index (kg/m2)34.8 (6.6)35.1 (7.1)
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L)5.9 (1.7)6.1 (1.7)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)122.8 (15.1)123.8 (15.1)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78.4 (8.2)78.2 (8.3)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.6 (1.5)1.4 (0.8)
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.1 (0.3)1.2 (0.3)
Physical activities (hours)
 Moderate activities4.3 (4.3)5.3 (6.2)
 Hard activities0.5 (1.6)0.5 (1.9)
 Very hard activities0.1 (0.6)0.2 (0.7)

Conditions included arthritis or rheumatism, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and lung disease; the number of conditions per participant ranged from 0 to 6.
b5 participants missing.
CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale 10.
DASS = Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21.