Table 1: Antibacterial effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos.

VarietyPart/compoundAntibacterial spectrumDetection methodsReferences

Lonicerae japonicae flosWater extractGram-positive bacteriaStreptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, pathogenic Streptococcosis of recurrent aphthous ulcerDilution-plate method (for minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]); filter paper method; agar diffusion method[147149]
Gram-negative bacteriaBlack-pigmented bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa P29, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli Dilution-plate method (for MIC); replica plating method, elimination experiment; in vivo test; tube dilution method (for MIC); filter paper method[19, 147, 148, 150]
FungiPenicillium, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Ashland’s Grubyella variant Mongolia,  Concentric endodermophyton, Trichophyton interdigitalis, ToeTrichophyton, dog Microsporum, Ferruginous microsporum, Nocardia asteroides Filter paper method; fungal inhibition test[18, 148]
Drug-resistant bacteriaMRSA, MRSH, MRSE, HLARDilution-plate method (for MIC)[22]
Water extracting-alcohol precipitating solutionGram-positive bacteriaStaphylococcus aureus Microdilution checkerboard method[151]
Gram-negative bacteriaSalmonella, Escherichia coli Microdilution checkerboard method[151]
Water extract and alcohol extractGram-positive bacteriaStreptococcus suis type 2Microtubule-plate method[152]
Water-soluble polysaccharideGram-positive bacteriaBacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus Circular paper method and MIC detection[16]
Gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris Circular paper method and MIC detection[16]
FungiSaccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger Circular paper method and MIC detection[16]
Supercritical carbon dioxide extractGram-positive bacteriaStaphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus albus
 Agar diffusion method and tube dilution method (for MIC)
[14]
Gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium
Total isochlorogenic acid, total chlorogenic acid, total flavone, total iridoid glycosideGram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli Microcalorimetric method[153]
Chlorogenic acidGram-positive bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis
Escherichia coli
Dilution method (for MIC)
[154]

Lonicerae flosLonicera hypoglauca Miq.
alcohol extract 70%
Gram-positive bacteriaStaphylococcus aureus Agar dilution method (for MIC) [23]
Gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Water extracting-alcohol precipitating solution of Lonicera macranthoides Hand.-Mazz.Gram-positive bacteriaStaphylococcus aureus, Sarcina, Bacillus subtilis Disk agar diffusion method [155]
Gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhi
Water extract of Lonicera macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. plumuleGram-positive bacteriaStaphylococcus aureus, Sarcina micrococcus, Bacillus subtilis Slip method [25]
Gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhi
Lonicera macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. components: phenolic acid (total chlorogenic acid), glycoside, flavonoid (total flavone), and volatile oilGram-positive bacteriaStaphylococcus aureus Slip method [29]
Gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Water extract of Lonicera hypoglauca Miq.Gram-positive bacteriaStaphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae Punch method [28]
Gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella Typhimurium