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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 917435, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/917435
Research Article

Curcumin Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Mitochondrial Alterations: Possible Role of a Mitochondrial Biogenesis Mechanism

1Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Química, UNAM, 04510 Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico
2Departamento de Biomedicina Cardiovascular, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, 14080 Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico
3Laboratorio de Fisiopatología Renal, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, 14080 Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico
4Unidad de Investigación en Enfermedades Oncológicas, Hospital Infantil de México “Federico Gómez”, 06720 Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico
5Departamento de Patología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán”, 14000 Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico
6Departamento de Nefrología, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, 14080 Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico

Received 7 May 2015; Revised 3 July 2015; Accepted 15 July 2015

Academic Editor: Jian-Li Gao

Copyright © 2015 Mario Negrette-Guzmán et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

It has been shown that curcumin (CUR), a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa, exerts a protective effect against gentamicin- (GM-) induced nephrotoxicity in rats, associated with a preservation of the antioxidant status. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in the GM-induced renal injury, the role of CUR in mitochondrial protection has not been studied. In this work, LLC-PK1 cells were preincubated 24 h with CUR and then coincubated 48 h with CUR and 8 mM GM. Treatment with CUR attenuated GM-induced drop in cell viability and led to an increase in nuclear factor (erythroid-2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear accumulation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) cell expression attenuating GM-induced losses in these proteins. In vivo, Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with GM (75 mg/Kg/12 h) during 7 days to develop kidney mitochondrial alterations. CUR (400 mg/Kg/day) was administered orally 5 days before and during the GM exposure. The GM-induced mitochondrial alterations in ultrastructure and bioenergetics as well as decrease in activities of respiratory complexes I and IV and induction of calcium-dependent permeability transition were mostly attenuated by CUR. Protection of CUR against GM-induced nephrotoxicity could be in part mediated by maintenance of mitochondrial functions and biogenesis with some participation of the nuclear factor Nrf2.