Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 926565, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/926565
Research Article

Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size

1Department of Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
2Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
3Hartford Healthcare, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102-5037, USA
4Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA

Received 10 March 2015; Accepted 4 May 2015

Academic Editor: Waris Qidwai

Copyright © 2015 Gloria Gronowicz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. M. Barnes, B. Bloom, and R. L. Nahin, “Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007,” National Health Statistics Reports, no. 12, pp. 1–23, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Deng and B. Cassileth, “Integrative oncology: an overview,” American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book, pp. 233–242, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. N. Garland, D. Valentine, K. Desai et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine use and benefit finding among cancer patients,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 876–881, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Huebner, F. J. Prott, O. Micke et al., “Online survey of cancer patients on complementary and alternative medicine,” Oncology Research and Treatment, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 304–308, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  5. P. Heidt, “Effect of therapeutic touch on anxiety level of hospitalized patients,” Nursing Research, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 32–37, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. A. Kramer, “Comparison of therapeutic touch and casual touch in stress reduction of hospitalized children,” Pediatric Nursing, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 483–485, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Gagne and R. C. Toye, “The effects of therapeutic touch and relaxation therapy in reducing anxiety,” Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 184–189, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. Keller and V. M. Bzdek, “Effects of therapeutic touch on tension headache pain,” Nursing Research, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 101–106, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. D. Peck, “The efficacy of therapeutic touch for improving functional ability in elders with degenerative arthritis,” Nursing Science Quarterly, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 123–132, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. L. McCormack, “Using non-contact therapeutic touch to manage post-surgical pain in the elderly,” Occupational Therapy International, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 44–56, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. C. Meehan, “Therapeutic touch and postoperative pain: a Rogerian research study,” Nursing Science Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. G. Turner, A. J. Clark, D. K. Gauthier, and M. Williams, “The effect of therapeutic touch on pain and anxiety in burn patients,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y.-S. Lin and A. G. Taylor, “Effects of therapeutic touch in reducing pain and anxiety in an elderly population,” Integrative Medicine, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 155–162, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Gordon, J. H. Merenstein, F. D'Amico, and D. Hudgens, “The effects of therapeutic touch on patients with osteoarthritis of the knee,” Journal of Family Practice, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 271–277, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. L. Woods and M. Dimond, “The effect of therapeutic touch on agitated behavior and cortisol in persons with Alzheimer's disease,” Biological Research For Nursing, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 104–114, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. L. Woods, R. F. Craven, and J. Whitney, “The effect of therapeutic touch on behavioral symptoms of persons with dementia,” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 66–74, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Giasson and L. Bouchard, “Effect of therapeutic touch on the well-being of persons with terminal cancer,” Journal of Holistic Nursing, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 383–398, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Jain and P. J. Mills, “Biofield therapies: helpful or full of hype? A best evidence synthesis,” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. S. So, Y. Jiang, and Y. Qin, “Touch therapies for pain relief in adults,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD006535, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Hammerschlag, B. L. Marx, and M. Aickin, “Nontouch biofield therapy: a systematic review of human randomized controlled trials reporting use of only nonphysical contact treatment,” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 881–892, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. B. Rubik, “The biofield hypothesis: its biophysical basis and role in medicine,” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 703–717, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. D. Williams, M. S. Markov, W. E. Hardman, and I. L. Cameron, “Therapeutic electromagnetic field effects on angiogenesis and tumor growth,” Anticancer Research, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 3887–3891, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Markov, C. Williams, I. Cameron, W. Hardman, and J. Salvatore, “Can magnetic fields inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth?” in Bioelectric Medicine, P. J. Rosch and M. S. Markov, Eds., pp. 625–636, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  24. J. M. Watson, E. A. Parrish, and C. A. Rinehart, “Selective potentiation of gynecologic cancer cell growth in vitro by electromagnetic fields,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 64–71, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Seto, C. Kusaka, S. Nakazato, T. Sato, T. Hisamitsu, and C. Takeshige, “Detection of extraordinary large bio-magnetic field strength from human hand during external Qi emission,” Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 75–94, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Hisamitsu, A. Seto, S. Nakazato, T. Yamamoto, and S. K. H. Aung, “Emission of extremely strong magnetic fields from the head and whole body during oriental breathing exercises,” Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, vol. 21, no. 3-4, pp. 219–227, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Zimmerman, “Laying-on-of-hands and therapeutic touch: a testable theory,” Journal of the Bio-Electro-Magnetics Institute, vol. 2, pp. 8–17, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. N. Hansen and J. A. Lieberman, “Use of a torsion pendulum balance to detect and characterize what may be a human bioenergy field,” Journal of Scientific Exploration, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 205–225, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Monzillo and G. Gronowicz, “New insights on therapeutic touch: a discussion of experimental methodology and design that resulted in significant effects on normal human cells and osteosarcoma,” Explore, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 44–51, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Ferlay, D. Forman, C. D. Mathers, and F. Bray, “Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010,” The Lancet, vol. 379, no. 9824, pp. 1390–1391, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Korkaya, S. Liu, and M. S. Wicha, “Breast cancer stem cells, cytokine networks, and the tumor microenvironment,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 121, no. 10, pp. 3804–3809, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. J. Aslakson and F. R. Miller, “Selective events in the metastatic process defined by analysis of the sequential dissemination of subpopulations of a mouse mammary tumor,” Cancer Research, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1399–1405, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Bianchini and L. Gianni, “The immune system and response to HER2-targeted treatment in breast cancer,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. e58–e68, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. X. Jiang and D. J. Shapiro, “The immune system and inflammation in breast cancer,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 382, no. 1, pp. 673–682, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. J. Standish, E. S. Sweet, J. Novack et al., “Breast cancer and the immune system,” Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 158–168, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Jhaveri, S. J. Walsh, Y. Wang, M. McCarthy, and G. Gronowicz, “Therapeutic touch affects DNA synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblasts in culture,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1541–1548, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. M. Jensen, J. T. Jørgensen, T. Binderup, and A. Kjær, “Tumor volume in subcutaneous mouse xenografts measured by microCT is more accurate and reproducible than determined by 18F-FDG-microPET or external caliper,” BMC Medical Imaging, vol. 8, article 16, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. Curigliano, “Immunity and autoimmunity: revising the concepts of response to breast cancer,” The Breast, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. S71–S74, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. I. Carvalho, I. Pires, J. Prada, and F. L. Queiroga, “A role for T-lymphocytes in human breast cancer and in canine mammary tumors,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 130894, 11 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Tsujimura, T. Matsutani, A. Matsuda et al., “Effects of pioglitazone on survival and omental adipocyte function in mice with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. e215–e221, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Yeh, W. Chou, C. C. Chu et al., “Anticancer agent 2-methoxyestradiol improves survival in septic mice by reducing the production of cytokines and nitric oxide,” Shock, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 510–516, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  42. B.-Z. Qian and J. W. Pollard, “Macrophage diversity enhances tumor progression and metastasis,” Cell, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 39–51, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. O'Brien and P. Schedin, “Macrophages in breast cancer: do involution macrophages account for the poor prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer?” Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 145–157, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. K. Sloan, S. J. Priceman, B. F. Cox et al., “The sympathetic nervous system induces a metastatic switch in primary breast cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 18, pp. 7042–7052, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. H. Thaker, L. Y. Han, A. A. Kamat et al., “Chronic stress promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma,” Nature Medicine, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 939–944, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. D. Powell, A. J. Tarr, and J. F. Sheridan, “Psychosocial stress and inflammation in cancer,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 30, supplement, pp. S41–S47, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. Schmidt, S. O. Reber, C. Botteron et al., “Chronic psychosocial stress promotes systemic immune activation and the development of inflammatory Th cell responses,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1097–1104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. B. Panksepp and G. P. Lahvis, “Rodent empathy and affective neuroscience,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1864–1875, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. A. Gronowicz, A. Jhaveri, L. W. Clarke, M. S. Aronow, and T. H. Smith, “Therapeutic touch stimulates the proliferation of human cells in culture,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 233–239, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Grad, R. Cadoret, and G. Paul, “An unorthodox method of treatment on wound healing in mice,” International Journal of Parapsychology, vol. 3, pp. 5–24, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  51. S. K. Lutgendorf, E. Mullen-Houser, D. Russell et al., “Preservation of immune function in cervical cancer patients during chemoradiation using a novel integrative approach,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus