Table 3: Outcomes of the included studies.

StudyMeasuring toolHerbal compressControl
BeforeAfterDescriptionBeforeAfter

Knee OA— level of pain
Artkarn, 2006 [10]Average VAS of pain when performing activities (score range 0–10)5.5 ± 1.22.6 ± 1.2Oral diclofenac4.3 ± 2.02.8 ± 2.6
Chiranthanut et al.,  
2014 [11]
Total VAS of pain over the last two days when performing 5 daily activities (score range 0–500)260.2 ± 68.961.6 ± 49.4Oral ibuprofen253.8 ± 63.469.2 ± 71.0
Lekutai et al.,  
2008 [14]
Average VAS of pain after wakeup, noon, 6 pm, and before going to bed (score range 0–10)5.9 ± 2.02.8 ± 0.3Hot compress  
Isometric knee exercise
5.4 ± 1.4 
4.9 ± 1.7
2.5 ± 0.3 
3.3 ± 0.3
Phromjuang,  
2010 [15]
VAS of pain when performing activities (score range 0–10)4.3 ± 1.81.7 ± 1.0Usual care3.9 ± 2.02.0 ± 1.1
Sukonthasarn,  
2004 [18]
Average VAS of pain when performing 15 daily activities (0–10)4.2 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 0.9Knee exercise  
Knee exercise plus herbal compress
4.1 ± 1.3 
4.4 ± 1.2
2.7 ± 1.2  
3.0 ± 1.2
Suwan,  
2000 [19]
Total VAS of pain when performing 13 daily activities (score range 0–130)88.0 ± 24.036.6 ± 19.6Hot compress88.0 ± 26.2 53.2 ± 27.6

Knee OA— difficulty in performing activities
Artkarn, 2006 [10]Average VAS of difficulty in performing selected activities (score range, NR)12.2 ± 16.5Oral diclofenac12.5 ± 14.7
Chiranthanut et al.,  
2014 [11]
Lequesne's functional index (score range 0–24)13.2 ± 4.16.5 ± 3.7Oral ibuprofen12.7 ± 2.47.8 ± 3.3
Lekutai et al.,  
2008 [14]
Average VAS of difficulty in performing daily activities, during climbing up and down stairs, and during night time (score range 0–10)6.0 ± 2.13.1 ± 2.6Hot compress  
Isometric knee exercise
6.1 ± 1.4 
5.1 ± 1.8
3.0 ± 1.9 
2.4 ± 1.6
Sukonthasarn,  
2004 [18]
Average VAS of difficulty in performing 20 daily activities3.9 ± 2.73.2 ± 2.7Knee exercise  
Knee exercise plus herbal compress
4.1 ± 2.5 
4.0 ± 2.7
2.8 ± 2.4 
2.5 ± 2.5
Suwan,  
2000 [19]
Total VAS of difficulty in performing 22 daily activities (score range 0–220)144.0 ± 35.976.2 ± 30.1Hot compress133.5 ± 30.386.4 ± 38.6

Muscle pain—level of pain
Artkarn, 2006 [10]Average VAS of pain when performing activities (score range 0–10)6.1 ± 1.33.48 ± 1.1Oral diclofenac5.0 ± 1.92.2 ± 1.8
Puengsuwan et al., 
2009 [16]
VAS of pain (score range 0–10)3.4 ± 2.4 2.4 ± 2.4Hot compress3.7 ± 2.5 2.4 ± 2.1
Sathianrat et al.,  
2003 [17]
VAS of pain (score range 0–10)5.7 ± 1.51.7 ± 1.3Hot compress  
Topical diclofenac
5.0 ± 1.6 
5.7 ± 1.7
2.1 ± 2.1 
2.0 ± 2.1

Labor pain—level of pain
Iampornchai et al., 
2009 [12]
Pain numeric rating scale (score range 0–10)5 (5-6)4 (3–4.2)Usual care5 (5-6)5 (3.8–5.2)
Intarasukum and Kerdcharoen,  
2011 [13]
VAS of pain in early phase, that is, cervix dilated for 4-5 cm (score range 0–10)6.24.5Usual care7.87.5
Intarasukum and Kerdcharoen,  
2011 [13]
VAS of pain in late phase, that is, cervix dilated for 8-9 cm (score range 0–10)6.26.4Usual care7.89.6

Induce lactation
Listisit and Pakdeechot,  
2009 [20]
Duration from delivery to milk secretion >1-2 drops, minutes1,684.8 ± 540.7Routine increasing milk production program2,003.3 ± 575.3
Pakdeechot et al.,  
2010 [21]
Duration from delivery to milk secretion >1-2 drops, minutes1,309.3 ± 535.3Routine increasing milk production program1,837.6 ± 901.1
Trainapakul et al.,  
2010 [22]
Milk ejection score (score range 0–4)51.4&54.6&Breast massage followed by mini hot bag compress42.1&39.0&

Values presented as mean ± SD; mean difference; median (interquartile range); &mean rank; NR, not reported.