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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 2046298, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2046298
Research Article

Membrane Stabilization and Detoxification of Acetaminophen-Mediated Oxidative Onslaughts in the Kidneys of Wistar Rats by Standardized Fraction of Zea mays L. (Poaceae), Stigma maydis

1Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, QwaQwa Campus, Phuthaditjhaba 9866, South Africa
2Department of Microbial, Biochemical, and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Nelson Mandela Drive, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9301, South Africa

Received 18 March 2016; Accepted 22 May 2016

Academic Editor: Khaled Abo-el-Sooud

Copyright © 2016 S. Sabiu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals. The fraction also markedly improved creatinine clearance rate, glutathione, and calcium concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in the nephrotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the antioxidative and membrane stabilization activities of the fraction. The observed effects compared favorably with that of vitamin C and are informative of the fraction’s ability to prevent progression of renal pathological conditions and preserve kidney functions as evidently supported by the histological analysis. Although the effects were prominently exhibited in the fraction-pretreated groups, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the fraction could prevent or extenuate acetaminophen-mediated oxidative renal damage via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms.