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Figure 1: RSNP improves the impaired spatial learning and memory capability in VD animal model, which is proved by MWM test. (a) Representative pathways on the fifth day of navigation test, red block: start position, blue block: platform position; (b) escape latencies of rats in each group; (c) percentage of the time spent in the target quadrant in the probe test; (d) percentage of distance in the target quadrant in the probe test. Values were expressed as mean ± SD. Sham or sham-operated: sham-operated group; model: 2VO induced VD model group; RSNP-L: the group of VD model, which was administered with 70.44 mg/kg of RSNP for four weeks after the surgery; RSNP-M: the group of VD model, which was administered with 281.76 mg/kg of RSNP for four weeks after the surgery; EGB: the group of VD model, which was administered with 17.03 mg/kg of EGB for four weeks after the surgery; per group; : compared to the sham-operated group, ; #: compared to the model group, ; $: compared to the RSNP-L group, .