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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 2905127, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2905127
Research Article

Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola) Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

1Department of Life Science, Bokjung-dong, Sujung-gu, Sungnam-si, Gyeongg-do 461-701, Republic of Korea
2Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747, Republic of Korea

Received 2 August 2016; Accepted 21 November 2016

Academic Editor: Pierre Champy

Copyright © 2016 Goon-Tae Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. While the cell viability was not altered by the steam GE, it was reduced by the ethanol GE. Both steam and ethanol GE induced the transcriptional expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, but only the steam extract upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In consistence with mRNA expression, the production of TNF-α and nitrite was elevated by both steam and ethanol extracts of Graviola leaves. This is mainly due to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that Graviola leaves enhance immunity by activation of the MAP kinase pathways. These bioactive properties of Graviola indicate its potential as a health-promoting ingredient to boost the immune system.