Table 3: Chemical composition of various essential oils and their antiviral activity against human pathogens.

PlantPart usedChemical compounds Inhibited microorganismsReferences

Achillea fragrantissimaAerial parts2,5,5-Trimethyl-3,6-heptadien-2-ol, eucalyptol, artemisia alcohol, thujoneORF virus (a parapox virus)[19]

Artemisia arborescensAerial parts-Thujone, linalool, myrcene, carvacrolHerpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)[93]

Fortunella margaritaLeavesGurjunene, eudesmol, muuroleneAvian influenza A virus (H5N1),[94]

Glechon spathulata Leaves-Caryophyllene, bicyclogermacreneHSV-1[82]

Glechon marifoliaLeaves-Caryophyllene, bicyclogermacreneHSV-1[82]

Hyptis mutabilisLeaves-Phellandrene, p-cymene, E-caryophylleneHSV-1[95]

Lepechinia salviifoliaLeavesGermacrene DHSV-1[95]

Melissa officinalisLeavesMyrcene, linalool, camphor, citronellal, -caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, citralHSV-2, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 [19, 96]

Minthostachys mollisLeaves-Pinene, estragoleHSV-1[95]

Ocimum campechianumLeavesLinalool, eugenolHSV-1[95]

Pogostemon cablin LeavesPatchoulol, -guaieno; gurjunene-, -guaiene, aromadendrene, -patchouleneInfluenza A (H2N2) virus[1, 9799]

Trachyspermum ammiLeavesThymol, -pinene, p-cymene, limoneneJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV)[100]