Table 1: Baseline characteristics of the subjects ().

Number of patients (%)

Gender
 Male31 (57.4)
 Female23 (42.6)
Seizure frequency
 1–10 times/day33 (61.1)
 11–50 times/day13 (24.1)
 >51 times/day8 (14.8)
Seizure type
 Generalized17 (31.5)
  Tonic-clonic2 (3.7)
  Atypical absence6 (11.1)
  Myoclonic1 (1.9)
  Tonic12 (22.2)
  Atonic5 (9.3)
 Focal14 (25.9)
 Epileptic spasms21 (38.9)
 Unclassified2 (3.7)
Electroclinical syndrome and other epilepsies
 Neonatal epileptic encephalopathy2 (3.7)
 Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures1 (1.9)
 West syndrome19 (35.2)
 Lenox-Gastaut syndrome13 (24.1)
 Generalized epilepsy without a known structural causes3 (5.6)
 Focal epilepsy
  With a known structural or metabolic causes4 (7.4)
  Without a known structural or metabolic causes9 (16.7)
 Epilepsies of unknown causes3 (5.6)
Age at the first seizure
 Median (range)7.5 months (1 day to 6 years)
Age at the start of the SGT
 Median (range)16.5 months (1 month to 10.3 years)
Brain MRI at starting SGT
 Normal29 (53.7)
 Abnormal25 (46.3)
Developmental status
 Delayed49 (90.7)
 Normal5 (9.3)
Number of previously used AEDs
 217 (31.5)
 318 (33.3)
 412 (22.2)
 54 (7.4)
 >63 (5.6)
Previously used AEDs
 Sodium valproate25 (46.3)
 Vigabatrin24 (44.4)
 Levetiracetam23 (42.6)
 Topiramate22 (40.7)
 Phenobarbital14 (25.9)
 Clobazam12 (22.2)
 Lamotrigine8 (14.8)
 Oxcarbazepine8 (14.8)
 Clonazepam7 (13)
 Divalproex sodium5 (9.3)
 Rufinamide4 (7.4)
 Zonisamide4 (7.4)
 Phenytoin3 (5.6)
 Carbamazepine2 (3.7)
 Ethosuximide1 (1.9)
 Lacosamide1 (1.9)
Number of concomitant AEDs at start of herbal medicine
 11 (1.9)
 221 (38.9)
 315 (27.8)
 413 (24.1)
 53 (5.6)
 >61 (1.9)

SGT, Shihogyejitang; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; AED, antiepileptic drug.
5 patients had mixed seizure type.