Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 3948795, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3948795
Research Article

Effects of Safflower Yellow on the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

1Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
2Department of Intensive Care Unit, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
3Department of Respiratory Medicine, The People’s Hospital of Pujiang County, Sichuan 611630, China
4Department of Nephrology, The People’s Hospital of Pujiang County, Sichuan 611630, China

Received 12 November 2015; Revised 11 January 2016; Accepted 21 January 2016

Academic Editor: Seung-Il Jeong

Copyright © 2016 Xiao-jin Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. C. Angus, W. T. Linde-Zwirble, J. Lidicker, G. Clermont, J. Carcillo, and M. R. Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1303–1310, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. R. H. Van Zanten, S. Brinkman, M. S. Arbous, A. Abu-Hanna, M. M. Levy, and N. F. De Keizer, “Guideline bundles adherence and mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1890–1898, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Perner and N. Haase, “Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus kinger's acetate in severe sepsis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 367, no. 2, pp. 124–134, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. P. Asfar, F. Meziani, J.-F. Hamel et al., “High versus low blood-pressure target in patients with septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 17, pp. 1583–1593, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. A. Russell, K. R. Walley, J. Singer et al., “Vasopressin versus norepinephrine infusion in patients with septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 9, pp. 877–887, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes et al., “Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 580–637, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. K. B. Laupland, A. W. Kirkpatrick, and A. Delaney, “Polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock in critically ill adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2686–2692, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. M. Contrael, A. J. Killian, S. R. Gregg, T. G. Buchman, and C. M. Coopersmith, “Prescribing patterns of hydrocortisone in septic shock: a single-center experience of how surviving sepsis guidelines are interpreted and translated into bedside practice,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2310–2317, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Asgarpanah and N. Kazemivash, “Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Carthamus tinctorius L.,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 153–159, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Li, S. Zhang, M. Lu et al., “Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppresses inflammatory responses of BV2 microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 535, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B.-X. Zang, M. Jin, N. Si, Y. Zhang, W. Wu, and Y.-Z. Piao, “Antagonistic effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A on the platelet activating factor receptor,” Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 696–699, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. S. Jun, Y. M. Ha, H. S. Kim et al., “Anti-inflammatory action of methanol extract of Carthamus tinctorius involves in heme oxygenase-1 induction,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 524–530, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L.-J. Li, Y.-M. Li, B.-Y. Qiao et al., “The value of Safflower Yellow Injection for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction: a randomized controlled trial,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, Article ID 478793, 6 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. Y. Liu, X. Tian, M. Cui, and S. Zhao, “Safflower yellow inhibits angiotensin II–induced adventitial fibroblast proliferation and migration,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 107–114, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Kong, W. Xia, Z. Zhang et al., “Safflower yellow injection combined with conventional therapy in treating unstable angina pectoris: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 553–561, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Y. Fan, N. Lin, G. L. Shan, P. Zuo, and L. Cui, “Safflower yellow for acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 354–361, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. N. Hoffmann and K. Schick, “Antithrombin and hypercoagulability in sepsis: insights from thrombelastography?” Critical Care, vol. 11, no. 1, article 115, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Wang, G. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Xue, Y. Cao, and Y. Wu, “Increased neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin is associated with mortality and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in severe sepsis and septic shock,” Shock, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 234–238, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. Y. Qiao, Z. F. Yang, Y. Tian, Y. Y. Jia, and J. Yang, “Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of hydroxy safflor yellow a in healthy volunteers,” China Pharmacy, vol. 24, pp. 1901–1904, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  20. L. G. Chen, L. Ding, H. R. Zhang et al., “Dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line spectrophotometric determination of safflower yellow in Flos Carthami,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 580, no. 1, pp. 75–82, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Punjanon, T. Arpornsuwan, and N. Klinkusoom, “The pharmacological properties of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L),” Bulletin of Health Science and Technology, vol. 7, pp. 51–63, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  22. K. Inoue, C. Nomura, Y. Mizuno et al., “Separation of major safflowers from Carthamus yellow using high-speed countercurrent chromatography,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1047–1059, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. A. Chapman and J. M. Burke, “DNA sequence diversity and the origin of cultivated safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.; Asteraceae),” BMC Plant Biology, vol. 7, article 60, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. De Backer, P. Biston, J. Devriendt et al., “Comparison of dopamine and norepinephrine in the treatment of shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 9, pp. 779–789, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. P. Rivers, A. C. Yataco, A. K. Jaehne, J. Gill, and M. Disselkamp, “Oxygen extraction and perfusion markers in severe sepsis and septic shock: diagnostic, therapeutic and outcome implications,” Current Opinion in Critical Care, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 381–387, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. Morelli, A. Donati, C. Ertmer et al., “Microvascular effects of heart rate control with esmolol in patients with septic shock: a pilot study,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 2162–2168, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Jin, C.-Y. Sun, C.-Q. Pei, L. Wang, and P.-C. Zhang, “Effect of safflor yellow injection on inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammatory injury in mice,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 836–843, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Masson, P. Caironi, C. Fanizza et al., “Sequential N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin measurements during albumin replacement in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock,” Critical Care Medicine, pp. 1–10, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Friedman, E. Silva, and J.-L. Vincent, “Has the mortality of septic shock changed with time?” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 2078–2086, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. The ARISE Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group, “Goal-directed resuscitation for patients with early septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 371, no. 16, pp. 1496–1506, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. D. M. Yealy, J. A. Kellum, D. T. Huang et al., “A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 18, pp. 1683–1693, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  32. P. R. Mouncey, T. M. Osborn, G. S. Power et al., “Trial of early, goal-directed resuscitation for septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 372, no. 14, pp. 1301–1311, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. K. Grozdanovski, Z. Milenkovic, I. Demiri, and K. Spasovska, “Prediction of outcome from community-acquired severe sepsis and septic shock in tertiary-care university hospital in a developing country,” Critical Care Research and Practice, vol. 2012, Article ID 182324, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. de Groot, J. Lameijer, E. R. J. T. de Deckere, and A. Vis, “The prognostic performance of the predisposition, infection, response and organ failure (PIRO) classification in high-risk and low-risk emergency department sepsis populations: comparison with clinical judgement and sepsis category,” Emergency Medicine Journal, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 292–300, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Rivers, B. Nguyen, S. Havstad et al., “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 19, pp. 1368–1377, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Kumar, N. Kumar, A. Taneja et al., “Nationwide trends of severe sepsis in the 21st century (2000–2007),” Chest, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 1223–1231, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar