Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

The Status of Ethnobotanical Knowledge of Medicinal Plants and the Impacts of Resettlement in Delanta, Northwestern Wello, Northern Ethiopia

Table 1

TMPs used against human and livestock ailments and detailed information on methods of preparation. Description of data: Uf.: used for (L: livestock; H: human; Hl.: both), Cp.: condition of preparation (F: fresh; D: dried; and Fd.: fresh & dried), Ra.: route of administration (D: dermal, Op.: optical, N: nasal, O: oral, A: anal, and V: vaginal), and Pu.: plant parts used (R: root, S: stem, Sb.: stem bark, Rh.: rhizome, L: leaf, F: fruit, Fl.: flower, Se.: seed, B: bulbs, La.: latex, W: whole parts, and Ag.: abovegroufnd part).

Scientific namePu.Uf.Disease treatedRa.Cp.Method of preparation and application of TMPs

Achyranthes asperaLHConjunctivitisOp.FPounded and squeezed leaf juice is filtered with cotton cloth and dropped into the eye
LHImpetigo (Kunchir)DFCrushed leaf is bandaged on the wound
RHHemorrhage at birthOFPounded and squeezed leaf is filtered with water to be drunk in a half size of water cup
RHl.Bleeding of any partDFIt is crushed and then dressed on the bleeding part of livestock and human

Aeonium leucoblepharumLHEmergency (trauma)DFCrushed leaf juice is creamed on head and face or any parts that felt sickness

Ajuga integrifoliaLHTonsillitisOFPounded and squeezed leaf juice is drunk with a coffee glass

Allium cepaBLLeech infestationNFd.It is crushed and mixed with water and poured into the nose in both openings
BHLeech infestationOFd.It is crushed and mixed with water and then poured orally

Allium sativumBHInfluenza virusNFThe bulb is peeled and the aroma sniffed
BHDry coughOFd.The bulb is chopped and mixed with ground seed of Guizotia abyssinica and Nigella sativa powder form of Thymus schimperi and crushed Zingiber officinale is drunk continuously
BHEvil eyeD/N FIts bulb with the roots of Withania somnifera, Lobelia giberroa, Sida schimperiana, Carissa spinarum, Dodonaea angustifolia, Verbena officinalis, Capparis tomentosa, Croton macrostachyus, Verbasicum siniaticum, Jasminum grandiflorum, Ceratostigma abyssinicum, Clerodendrum myricoides, Ferula communis, Cyphostemma adenocaule, and Cucumis ficifolius and whole parts of Artemisia afra, Ruta chalepensis, and Lepidium sativum are crushed and the smoke on the burning firewood is sniffed; the powder form is tied on the neck
BHHeartburn (Tkusat)O FChopped bulb is boiled in water and then the decoction is drunk in a tea glass

Aloe camperiFl.HIdiopathy (likift)DFIt is cooked with chopped root of Impatiens rothii and flower of Buddleja polystachya and then the irritated feet and fingers are immersed in the cooker for three consecutive days
LEvil spirit at birthNDIt is placed on burning dung with Otostegia integrifolia and fumigated the house and is inhaled

Aloe pulcherrimaLa.Hl.Wound (irritation)DFIt is pasted the latex on the wounded part of livestock and human
RLRh factor/diseaseODIt is pounded with the root of Eleusine floccifolia, Asparagus africanus, Verbscum sinaiticum, Trajia cinerea, Ferula communis, bark of Myrica salicifolia, and seed of Sesamum orientale with pestle and mortar and eaten with Injera for three consecutive days at 9th pregnancy month
RHRh factor/diseaseODIt is powdered with Asparagus africanus and Sesamum orientale and then two teaspoons are taken with the same size infusion of honey for three days at ninth month of pregnancy period

Artemisia abyssinicaLHCommon coldNFThe aroma of leaf is inhaled by inserting half part of it into nose
SHTrachomaOp.FThe infected outer part of the eye is heated with roasted portion of stem
WHEvil eyeO/DFd.It is kept in pocket as tooth brush; the powder is tied with others like A. sativum

Arundo donaxRh.HBirth controlODChopped and pounded rhizome is mixed with root of Verbena officinalis, powder form is homogenized in water, and one coffee glass is drunk once in the morning before breakfast

Asparagus africanusAg.Hl.Swelling (Agjil)DFIt is crushed and homogenized in water for washing the swelling by saying “Betin”
RHl.Rh factor/diseaseODIt is pounded with the root of other species like A. pulcherrima
Ag.HCircumcisionDFThe young aboveground part is crushed and the injury is applied as cream with yolk of egg

Bersama abyssinicaLHAscariasisOFIt is boiled in water with seed of Vicia faba for drinking the decoction; the cooked bean is eaten

Brassica nigraSe.LBloatingODIt is ground and homogenized in residue of traditional ale with Lepidium sativum and decanted
Se.HAbortion of unborn child (Atnt Kirit)ODIt is ground and homogenized in a cup of water and then drunk by pregnant woman

Buddleja polystachyaFHIdiopathyDFIts flowers are cooked with crushed root of Impatiens rothii, same as A. camperi

Caesalpinia decapetalaLHTinea favus (Lashign)DDCrushed and powdered leaf is mixed with butter and then the infected head part is creamed

Calotropis proceraLa.HHemorrhoids/tumor (swollen anal veins) AFIts latex is used alone or mixed with Euphorbia polycantha, Ficus palmata, Aloe pulcherrima, Lobelia giberroa,and squeezed leaf of Clematis semensis and is creamed
La.HPiercing by sharperDFThe latex is applied as cream on part pierced by sharpen material with the help of needle
LHBoils (furuncle)DDCrushed and powdered leaf is applied as cream with latex of A. pulcherrima on inflamed part

Calpurnia aureaLLBody lice (kijamr)DFIts leaf is crushed and stirred in water to wash cattle or calves until removal of lice
Se.HGiardiasis and amoebiasisODThe ground seed is mixed with honey and eaten with three-liter rubber lid size in the morning until recovery, before taking other diets

Capparis tomentosaR/Sb.HEvil spirit (sickness)NDThe root or stem bark is chopped and placed on the fire and the smoke is inhaled
R/Sb.HEpidemicNDThe same methods are used to treat evil spirit and hang the remainder on the roof

Capsicum annuumFHAppetite loss OFThe pod is chopped and mixed with freshly A. sativum bulb in small amount of water in the bowls eaten with Injera
FHMalaria (revival)OFThe same method is used to treat loss of appetite, prior to taking other diets in the morning

Carduus schimperiRHFebrile illnessO/DFd.It is pounded and squeezed by adding water and is taken by a cup of tea and the remnant is creamed
RLFebrile illnessO/DFd.It is pounded by adding water and is decanted by a cup of water and the remnant is pasted
RLDysentery (Mentie)DDThe room of sheep or goats is fumigated and the remnants are placed there against “Mentie”

Carissa spinarumLHl.Snake biteOFThe liquid is chewed and absorbed soon and for animals its crushed leaf is decanted
LHRh factor/diseaseOFIt is crushed and soaked in water for one day and drunk in one cup of coffee prior to 9th month of pregnancy period
RHEvil eyeD/NFd.It is the same as used in A. sativum

Carthamus lanatusLHSexual impotency in menOFd.It is crushed and pounded with the whole parts of Trajia cinerea and root of Hibiscus eriospermus, then stirred in local beer, and drunk in one cup of coffee until recovery

Catha edulisLHDiureticOFIt is boiled in the pot with water at night and the decoction is drunk in the morning

Ceratostigma abyssinicumRHEvil eyeD/NDIt is the same as used in A. sativum; the powder is tied in the neck with Abesha cloth and the remnant is inhaled through nose

Chenopodium schraderianumAg.LCoccoides (chicken lice)D/NDAboveground parts are chopped and the room of chickens is fumigated and the chickens themselves sniffed smokes nasally

Cistanche tubulosaWHFire accidentDDThe whole parts are crushed and powdered and then the burnt part is creamed with butter

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) SwingleFHDandruffDFThe acetic fruit is pierced and squeezed and the head is creamed with yolk of egg
FHRingworm (Agogot)DFIt is pierced and squeezed; then the affected parts are creamed alone specially faces

Clematis simensisLHImpetigo (Kunchir)DFThe leaf is crushed and squeezed and the affected part is creamed with powder of Triticum spp.

Clerodendrum myricoidesRHEvil eyeD/NDIt is the same as used in A. sativum; the powder is tied in the neck with Abesha cloth and the remnant is inhaled through nose

Clutia abyssinicaLLLeech infestationNFThe crushed leaf is soaked in water and decanted into cattle through their nose

Colutea abyssinicaSHToothacheDFAffected tooth is heated by chopped and roasted stem without contact with other parts
RHEmergency (Berar)OFd.It is crushed and pounded with the root of Inula confertiflora and the concoction is drunk with coffee; the roots are dug by hoes with stick of Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata on Friday

Combretum molleLHMalariaOFFresh leaf is boiled in water and the decoction is drunk in a cup of tea

Conyza hypoleucaRLEmaciationOFd.Its root is crushed together with root of Inula confertiflora, Echnops hispidus, and the leaf of Osyris quadripartita, Solanecio gigas, and whole Leucas martinicensis in new Lagenaria siceraria as a container with water for two to three days and the concoction is decanted

Coriandrum sativumSe.HStomachache (Alsha)ODThe raw seed is eaten with small amount of ground salt by the patient

Croton macrostachyusSb.HAscariasisOFIt is chopped and boiled in water with seed of Vicia faba and the decoction is drunk and the boiled beans are eaten
RHEvil spirit (Sickness)NDIt is chopped and placed on the fire with C. tomentosa and Withania somnifera and inhaled
RHEvil eyeDDIt is the same as used in A. sativum; crushed and powdered root is tied on the neck
LLPoison insects on Sorghum (Akara)OFIt is crushed alone or with root of Cyphostemma adenocaula and String hermonthica is soaked in ale and decanted when cattle ate the leaf of Sorghum that contained poisoned insects

Cucumis ficifoliaRHRemoval of retained placenta (Sing)OFFreshly washed root is chewed and absorbed by woman
LHl.Eye injury (inserted materials or hit)Op.FIt is crushed and squeezed with the leaf of Jasminum grandiflorum by adding small amount of water and dropped to the affected eye and then applied as cream butter for 3 days at night and washed with water in the morning prior to exposure to sunlight
RHBirth control OFIt is chewed and absorbed with ripe fruit of Solanum anguivi before sexual intercourse at the end of menstrual cycle
RHGonorrhea (Chebt)ODIn powder form, one teaspoon is infused into doro wot and then eaten by Injera
RHl.Rabies virusODPowdered root is mixed with cheese in one cup of tea and then drunk
RHJaundice (Yewuf)ODPowdered root is mixed with cheese in one tea glass and then drunk

Cucurbita pepoFHGastritis (Cheguara)OFPeeled fruit is boiled at night and eaten in the morning before taking other diets
LHDandruff (Forefor)DFThe head is rubbed and creamed alone or with the leaf of Datura stramonium
FHStomachache (kurtet)OFPeeled and boiled fruit is eaten before taking other diets soon by mother at birth

Cyathula uncinulataLLLeech infestationNFCrushed leaf is mixed with small amount of water is poured to the cattle via their nose
RHTapeworm (Kosso)OFd.Crushed and pounded root is eaten with ale/beer of Hordeum vulgare before filtration with water, one cup of coffee, for three consecutive days

Cynoglossum coeruleumWHFebrile illness (Mich)DFThe whole parts are crushed and infused in small amount of water and then the parts that felt illness are washed except chest

Cyphostemma adenocaulaRLPoison insects on Sorghum leaf O F It is the same method of preparation and ingredients as used in C. macrostachyus

Datura stramoniumSe.HToothache DDSeeds mixed to butter are roasted on plate and inhaled the vapor air through opening their mouth
LHRingworm, dandruff DFThe fresh leaf is rubbed and applied as cream on the head like C. pepo

Debregeasia saenebLHFebrile illnessO/NFIt is boiled in water and its decoction is drunk and then the vapor air is inhaled

Dodonaea angustifoliaS & LHl.Bone fractureDFd.Powdered leaf is glued with its cracked stem on the broken bone with sap of A. pulcherrima
RHEvil eyeD/NDIt is crushed and powdered and tied on the neck and roots are inhaled with others same as A. sativum

Dyschoriste radicansWHScabies, itching, and injury of skin DFd.The whole parts are roasted with Kalanchoe petitiana and powdered and then the inflamed parts are creamed with butter until recovery but for itching with the leaf of Rhus retinorrhoea
WHWound (Sheft)DFd.It is crushed and pounded with leaf of Kalanchoe petitiana and pasted on the injured parts

Echinops hispidusR & SHFebrile illnessO/DFd.It is pounded and squeezed and soaked in water and is drunk by a cup of tea and all parts are creamed
R & SLSunstroke (Shiwuta)O/DFd.It is pounded and soaked in water by a cup of water and is decanted and the livestock is creamed
R & SLStruck cattle O/NFd.It is pounded and infused in one cup of water and decanted, and fumigated the smoke for cattle
R & SHEpidemic; evil eyeNDIt is crushed and placed on the hot fire and inhaled by all householders

Ehretia cymosaLLLeech infestationNFCrushed leaf is soaked in water and the concoction decanted into the nose of cattle

Ekebergia capensis R & Sb.HGastritis, coughODIn powder form, two teaspoons infusions into one cup of water are taken before meals

Eleusine floccifoliaRLRh factor/diseaseODIt is the same ingredient and preparation method of A. pulcherrima

Eucalyptus camaldulensisLHEmergency illness NFThe leaf is roasted with the seed of Lepidium sativum on the heated tool and the smoke is inhaled by adding cool water on the roasted leaf and at the same time the eye is closed

Eucalyptus globulusLHHeadacheNFIt is rubbed and its aroma inhaled
LHCommon coldNFIt is rubbed and its aroma inhaled without calling its name “Nech-Bahirzaf”

Euphorbia abyssinicaSL Cough (Kuro)NDThe stem is placed on burning dung and the smoke sniffed to treat Donkey’s cough
La.HAscariasisOF3–5 drops of its latex are homogenized in water with the powder of Eragrostis tef and Injera is made that is to be eaten by infected patient
Fl.HLeprosy (sgadewie)DFd.Pounded flower is infused in honey and applied as cream on wound

Euphorbia platyphyllosWHAscariasisODIn powder form, two teaspoons are roasted with equal size of roasted Hordeum vulgare in the form of Injera and eaten for three consecutive days
La.HSkin infection (barle)DFThe latexes are applied as cream on the affected parts only

Euphorbia polyacanthaLa.HImpetigo (Kunchir)DFThe wound is bled first and then its latex with latex of Euphorbia tirucalli is applied as cream
La.HBoils (Bigungi)DFIts latex is applied as cream with latex of C. procera on the wound part only
La.HSkin cancer (tumor)DFIt is the same method of preparation as used in C. procera

Euphorbia tirucalliLa.LDonkey’s wartDFThe milky latex is pasted alone or with the latex of E. polycantha and squeezed leaf of C. simensis, after bleeding the wound with blade until recovery

Euryops pinifoliusLHStomachache (kurba)OFThe leaf is chewed and absorbed during feeling pain

Ferula communisRLSterile cow/be fertileODRoots are dug at seven distinct places; pounded root is eaten with Injera
RHIntestine pain ODTwo teaspoonful powders was infused in to glass of water (one cup of tea amount) and drunk

Ficus palmataLa.HImpetigo (Kunchir)DFThe wound is bled first and then its latex is applied as cream alone until recovery
La.HHemorrhoidsDFIt is the same method and ingredient used in C. procera

Ficus vastaLHFebrile illnessOp.FIt is boiled with the leaf of C. spinarum and Zehneria scabra and then the vapor is inhaled

Foeniculum vulgareLHDiuretic (Shntemat)ODIt is boiled and then the decoction is drunk by adding sugar like tea

Gossypium hirsutumSe.HMalariaODGround seed is soaked in water with small amount of salt and drunk by a cup of tea

Grewia ferrugineaSb.LLeech infestationNFChopped and pounded stem bark is mixed with water and poured into the nose of cattle
LLRemoval of placentaOFIt is crushed and pounded with the root of Verbscum sinaiticum and decanted for the cattle
LHEye injuryOp.FIt is squeezed alone or with Rumex nervosus and dropped into eye injured by Euphorbia latex

Guizotia abyssinicaSe.HDry coughODIt is pounded with seed of Nigella sativum, A. sativum, flower of Thymus schimperi, and rhizome of Zingiber officinale by pestle and mortar and then the concoction is drunk until recovery
Se.LSwelling bull neckDDThe seed is chewed and the chewed seed is pitted on the wounded neck of bull

Hagenia abyssinicaSb.HMalariaODIt is chopped and powdered with the root of Silene macrosolen, Phytolacca dodecandra, and C. ficifolus and the leaf of C. myricoides and is drunk in a half size cup of coffee
Se.HTapewormODThe seed is pounded by pestle and mortar and mixed in ale (before filtration) and then a small amount is eaten in a separate house with one boy; if the risk comes, the “Shiro” stew is taken

Hibiscus eriospermusRHImpotency in menOFd.It is the same method and ingredient used in C. lanatus

Hypoestes forskaoliiRHStomachacheOFThe cleaned root is chewed and the liquid absorbed
LHl.Leech infestationO/NFPounded leaf is soaked in water and drunk orally for human and decanted nasally for cattle

Impatiens rothiiTu.HIdiopathy (likift)DFIt is the same method as used in A. camperi and B. polystachya
Tu.HFire accidentDFd.Chopped and pounded tubular root is pasted on the injured body

Inula confertifloraLLCataract (mora)Op.FThe young leaf is chewed with the leaf of A. aspera and spitted to the affected cattle eye
LLLeech infestationNFIt is the same as E. cymosa
RLEmaciationOFd.It is the same method of preparation and ingredient of C. hypoleuca

Jasminum grandiflorumSh.HHemorrhage at birthVFIt is crushed with the leaf of Solanum incanum and C. pepo and applied as cream on the vagina
LHl.Eye injuryOp.FIt is the same method of preparation and ingredient of C. ficifolius
LHTrachoma (Aynemaz)Op.FIts young leaf and leaf of C. myricoides and I. confertiflora are crushed and dried under sunlight and then powdered to cream the infected part with “cul”

Juniperus proceraLLFebrile illnessOFCrushed and pounded leaf is stirred in water and then decanted for all pack animals
LLRh factor/diseaseOFCrushed and pounded leaf is stirred in water and then decanted for cow
LLLeech infestationNFCrushed and pounded leaf is stirred in water and then decanted for cattle

Justicia schimperianaLLBody liceDFIts leaf is crushed and pounded and then immersed in water to wash the body of cattle
LLDysenteryOFIt is crushed with Salvia schimperi and soaked in water with ash for decanting for sheep and goat

Kalanchoe petitianaSLSwelling bull neckDFOnce bled with blade, chopped and peeled stem twig is tied on injured neck of bull
Ag.HScabies (Lifie)DFd.It is the same method and ingredient as D. radicans

Lagenaria sicerariaFLSwelling bull neckDDThe fruit is roasted, used as container of butter on flame, and the injured neck of bull is rubbed
LHRingwormDFIt is crushed and applied as cream on infected head and other skin parts until recovery

Laggera tomentosaLHStomachacheOFThe leaf is chewed and the liquid absorbed
LHl.Leech infestationO/NFIt is the same as H. forskaolii preparation

Launaea intybaceaRHStomachacheOFThe root is chewed and the liquid absorbed

Leonotis ocymifoliaLLBloatingOFCrushed and pounded leaf is stirred in water and then decanted for cattle
LLStruck cattleOFCrushed and pounded leaf is stirred in water and then decanted for cattle

Lepidium sativumSe.LBloating (Nifat)ODIt is the same method and ingredient of B. nigra

Leucas martinicensisWLEmaciation OFd.It is the same method of preparation and ingredient of C.hypoleuca

Lippia adoensisLHRingworm (Aguagot)DFCrushed and pounded leaf is applied as cream with the milk of pregnant cow on the injured part

Lobelia rhynchopetalum R & SHEvil eyeO/DDIt is the same method and ingredient of A. sativum
La.HHemorrhoids/tumorDFIt is the same method and ingredient used in C. procera

Malva verticillataRHDandruffDFIts root is crushed in water until formation of bubble and then the head is washed
Sb.Hl.Wound (any type)DFChopped and pounded stem bark is pasted with powdered Usea sp. on wound

Mentha longifoliaLLLeech infestationNFIt is pounded and soaked in water and then the concoction decanted in nose of cattle

Momordica foetidaWHPsychiatric disorderDFThe whole parts are pounded and immersed in pot water for three days and body is washed

Myrica salicifoliaSb.LRh factor/diseaseOFd.It is the same ingredient and preparation method of A. pulcherrima

Myrsine africanaFHAscariasisOFRipe fruit is eaten and traditional beer/ale is drunk in the morning before any meals
LHTapewormOFThe leaf is pounded and squeezed by adding water and then drinking half a cup of water

Myrtus communisLHItching (Ekek)DDThe leaf is crushed and powdered with the leaf of Rhus retinorrhoea and butter; then the inflamed body is creamed and stayed under sunlight for a few minutes
Ag.HEpidemicNDThe crushed aboveground parts are inhaled on hot fire to reduce transmission of disease

Nicotiana rusticaLLLeech infestationNFThe leaf is pounded and soaked in water and then the concoction is decanted into nose of cattle

Nigella sativaSe.HStomachache (Alsha)ODThe ground seed is boiled with oil and drunk by tea glass
Se.HDry coughODIt is the same method and ingredient of G. abyssinica

Ocimum lamiifoliumLHHeadache; febrile O/DFOne cup of squeezed leaf is drunk with coffee orally and the remainder is applied as cream to injured parts

Olea europaea ssp. cuspidataSHToothacheDFIt is similar method to that used in C. abyssinica
SHHuman’s wartDFThe bleeding wart is heated with chopped and roasted stem with the sap of Rumex nervosus

Orobanche ramosaWHFire accidentDDCrushed and roasted parts are powdered and then are applied as cream with butter on injured parts

Osyris quadripartitaLLEmaciationOFd.It is the same method of preparation and ingredient of C. hypoleuca

Otostegia fruticosaLHDiarrheaOF One-half of a cup of coffee of squeezed leaf is drunk, specially for babies

Otostegia integrifoliaLHVomiting, nausea, & diarrhea OFThe leaf is crushed and squeezed and mixed to root of Verbena officinalis in a cup of coffee and then the concoction is drunk
LLDysenteryOFIt is crushed and pounded with leaf of C. hypoleuca and immersed in water under a new container of L. siceraria and then the concoction is decanted for the cattle, specially ox and cow
Ag.HEvil spiritNFd.The aboveground parts are fumigated on hot fire, specially for the new birth time

Otostegia tomentosaLHAscariasis, diarrheaOFThe leaf is pounded and squeezed and then drunk in a cup of tea in the morning before any diet

Phytolacca dodecandraR & LHlRabies virusODIt is chopped and pounded with the root of C. macrostachyus and Z. scabra and the powder is mixed with the milk of identical color cow and calf and drunk in half tea glass

Plectranthus cylindraceusLHVomiting & diarrhea OFCrushed and squeezed leaf is mixed in boiled cup of coffee and then the decoction is drunk
LHEmergency (Wereza) O/DFIt is squeezed and mixed in boiled cup of coffee and then the decoction is drunk and the face is creamed

Polygala abyssinicaRHAgainst snake biteOFIt is chewed and absorbed before any diet during the starting new year of Ethiopia and did not take any sour taste fruits from the time on wards
RHEvil spirit (Ayinetila)OFd.The cleaned root is chewed and absorbed

Primula verticillataLHl.Cataract (Mora)Op.FLeaf is pounded and squeezed by using clean cloth and added to injured or infected eye

Pteris dentateWHEvil spirit (Ejeseb)DFd. The powder is tied on the neck and held in the pocket wherever they moved

Pteris pteridioidesWHEvil spirit (Ejeseb)DFd.It is similar methods as those used in P. dentata

Pulicaria schimperi LHWound (infection)DFPounded leaf is pasted on wounded part

Rhamnus prinoidesLHTonsillitisO/DFd.Pounded and squeezed leaf is taken in a half index finger size of cup and is applied as cream with malt on the center of head by saying “sikel, sikel”

Rhus glutinosa ssp. neoglutinosaLLLeech infestationNFThe leaf is pounded and stirred in water that contained salt and then the concoction is decanted

Rhus retinorrhoeaLHItching (Ekek)DDIt is the same method and ingredient of M. communis

Rhynchosia minimaRLWeakling bull (Abayanet)ODIt is chopped and pounded with the root of Stephania abyssinica and Verbena officinalis which are immersed in a new container of L. siceraria for three days and then the concoction is decanted for the bull which is falling during plowing up the farmland

Ricinus communisSh.HEczema (Chifie)DFd.It is roasted and powdered with the leaf of C. procera and mixed with butter and then applied as cream

Rubus apetalusRHEvil eyeNDCrushed and powdered root is fumigated and the aroma of the smoke at night is smelt

Rumex abyssinicusRHItching (Ekek)DFd.It is crushed and roasted and then powdered root is applied as cream with butter on wound

Rumex nepalensisRHStomachache (Alsha)OFThe cleaned root is chewed and absorbed alone or with the root of Solanum incanum

Rumex nervosusLHEye painOp.FIt is the same as G. ferruginea
SHRingworm (Agogot)DFThe stem is roasted on hot fire and the bubbles arisen from stem are applied as cream on wound
SHHuman’s wartDFIt is the same as O. Europaea ssp. cuspidata

Ruta chalepensisFHStomachache (kurba)OFd.The fruit/seed is eaten alone or with the rhizome of Zingiber officinale and salt
FHEvil eye (lebuda)DFd.The fruit is chewed and held with the bulb of A. sativum and stem of A. afra

Salvia schimperiLLDysentery OFIt is the same method and ingredient of J. schimperiana

Schinus molleFHStomachache (kurba)OFd.The ripe fruit/seed is eaten alone for both prevention and treatment of disease

Sesamum orientaleSe.HRh factor/diseaseODIt is the same method and ingredient used in A. pulcherrima

Sida schimperianaRHEvil eyeO/DDIt is the same method and ingredients used in A. sativum

Silene macrosolenRHTapewormOFd.Crushed and pounded root in half index finger size is drunk by tea glass, and if the risk comes, powder of Linum usitatissimum infusion in water is taken as reducing pain

Solanecio gigasLLEmaciationOFIt is the same method of preparation and ingredient of C. hypoleuca

Solanum anguiviFHBirth controlOFIt is the same method of preparation and ingredient used in C. ficifolus
FHItching (Ekek)DFThe fruit is pounded with pestle and mortar and then applied as cream with butter on wound

Solanum marginatumF & Se.L Cough (Chifra)NFIts fruit is pierced and its fluid and seed are collected in a cup to be decanted nasally
F & Se.HRabies virusOFIts fluid is collected with squeezed leaf of P. dodecandra and then drunk with cup of tea
FLEvil eyeOFRoasted and pierced ripe fruit can be eaten with straw or hay fodders

Solanum incanumLHl.Bleeding (epistaxis)DFIts leaf is crushed and tied to bleeding nose alone or with the leaf of A. aspera and R. nervosus
RHStomachache OFIt is the same method and ingredient used in R. nepalensis

Solanum nigrumLHGastritisOFThe washed or cleaned raw leaf before any meals is chewed

Stephania abyssinicaRHAgainst snake biteOFIt is the same as P. abyssinica except that there is no restriction on taking any sour taste fruits

Striga hermonthicaWLPoisoned insects OFd.It is the same method and ingredients used in C. macrostachyus

Thymus schimperiFHDry coughODIt is the same method and ingredients used in G. abyssinica
LHHypertensionOFd.The crushed or the normal leaf is boiled and then taken like a tea with a tea glass

Tragia brevipesWHImpotency (in men)OFd.It is the same method and ingredient used in C. lanatus

Urtica simensisLHNight blindnessD/NFThe leaf is boiled in hot water and its aroma fumigated three times by opening the lid
Rh.HAbortion VFIt is peeled with blade; three half little finger size rhizomes are inserted in the vagina
LHEye injuryOpFPounded and squeezed leaf is dropped on the injured eye by insertion of bad materials

Verbena officinalisRHStomachache/nauseaOFThe liquid is chewed and sucked and the residue is spitted
RLWeakling bullODIt is the same method and ingredient used in R. minima

Verbscum sinaiticumRLStruck cattle (Betir) OFd.One water cup of pounded root in the water is decanted alone or with E. hispidus
RLFebrile illnessOFd.Crushed and pounded root is soaked in water and poured orally for all livestock
RHEvil eyeO/NDIt is the same method and ingredient used in A. sativum
RHPsychiatric disorderOFd.It is crushed alone or with C. ficifolus and then half index finger size by a tea glass is drunk

Vernonia leopoldiiLHWound, bleedingDFThe leaf is crushed and pounded and then tied on the injured part

Vernonia schimperiRHFebrile illnessD/NFd.Crushed and pounded leaf is stirred in water until bubbles are formed and then all parts are creamed except chest and the dried root is fumigated on hot fire and sniffed

Vicia fabaSe.HBoilsDDIt is ground and soaked in water and pasted on wound and then heated by dung of jackass
Se.HAscariasisODIt is the same method and ingredient used in either B. abyssinica or C. macrostachyus

Withania somniferaRHEvil eye/spiritD/NDIt is the same method and ingredient used in A. sativum

Zehneria scabraLHJaundiceOFThe leaf is pounded and squeezed and then drunk in half a cup of tea
RHl.Rabies virusODIt is the same method and ingredient used in P. dodecandra
Ag.HFebrile illnessNFIt is the same method and ingredient used in F. vasta

Zingiber officinaleRh.HStomachacheOFd.It is the same method and ingredient used in R. chalepensis

For authorities to scientific names of each species, see Appendix .