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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5860296, 11 pages
Research Article

Supercritical Fluid Extract of Spent Coffee Grounds Attenuates Melanogenesis through Downregulation of the PKA, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK Signaling Pathways

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2Department of Applied Cosmetology and Master Program of Cosmetic Science, Hungkuang University, No. 1018, Section 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung 43302, Taiwan
3O’right Plant Extract R&D Center, No. 18, Gaoping Section, Jhongfong Road, Longtan District, Taoyuan 32544, Taiwan
4Department of Emergency Medicine, Kuang Tien General Hospital, No. 321, Jingguo Road, Dajia District, Taichung 43761, Taiwan

Received 4 March 2016; Accepted 9 May 2016

Academic Editor: Caio P. Fernandes

Copyright © 2016 Huey-Chun Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The mode of action of spent coffee grounds supercritical fluid CO2 extract (SFE) in melanogenesis has never been reported. In the study, the spent coffee grounds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method; the chemical constituents of the SFE were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the SFE and its major fatty acid components on melanogenesis were evaluated by mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and determination of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content. The expression level of melanogenesis-related proteins was analyzed by western blotting assay. The results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds (1–10 mg/mL) and its major fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid (6.25–50 μM) effectively suppressed melanogenesis in the B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, the SFE decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). The SFE also decreased the protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-ERK, and p-CREB. Our results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds attenuated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways, which may be due to linoleic acid and oleic acid.